Apr 242014
 

In America, we all live our lives and realize our potential fully, freely and competitively, in different ways at different times. It is what we do and how we do it that gives us fulfillment.

It is all about the angles. It is all about the math. It is all very simple. Because very few can teach it, inasmuch as very few can compete against it.

Being American is an extreme sport, because this is America’s game. #WeThePeople, as competitive doers, can do most anything we set our minds to do!

Once we do what we do, how we do it, America is Extraordinary, America works!

 

When we recall the past, we usually find that it is the simplest things, not the great occasions, that in retrospect, give off the greatest glow of happiness.” America’s Entertainer Bob Hope (1903-2003)

United States Marines are Why America is Extraordinary, America Works!

This video displays how the extraordinary precision works inside the United States Marine Corps Silent Drill Platoon, as they performed on November 6, 2011 during halftime of the Houston Texans and Cleveland Browns football game at Reliant Stadium in Houston, Texas. The Marines Corps silent drill platoon performs.

Video Credit: United States Marine Corps Silent Drill Platoon, Houston Texans vs. Cleveland Browns Football Game Halftime, Reliant Stadium, Houston, Texas, November 6, 2011.

Marine Inside the White House, United States Marine Corps. This video showcases the extraordinary dedication of the four Marine Sentries that stand sentry outside the West Wing of the White House every day only at the times when the president is present inside the West Wing.

Video Credit: Marine Inside the White House, WhiteHouse.gov

The legendary football coach, teacher, and strategist, Tom Landry (1924-2000), was once a watchmaker. He was also trained as an engineer. He devised plans with precision. One individual did not make much of a difference, as much as the team in the confidence and execution of the game plan. He taught what matters most in the game plan is execution well-performed in whole and in its parts.

This is America’s game.

This is our well-executed disciplined plan. Our plan is declared with vision through our independence. Our game plan is executed with precision under our constitution. It still works. It is not broken. And, we still believe in it.

Photo Credit: "Stand In The Gap", Promise-Keepers

Photo Credit: “Stand In The Gap”, Promise-Keepers

Remember when we could not wait until our revolution began? Then one day it did. And, history shows we did and still continue to evolve as a nation.

Our country owes its origin to colonization of the British, Dutch, Swedish, French and Spaniards. The British established a fundamental influence on the American experience early-on.

No infusion of new immigrants occurred in America during her first half-century. But in 1846 came the Irish potato famine, and the beginning of an enormous immigration. Known as the greatest in all human history, the Irish coming first, then the Germans, then the Italians, and lastly the Czechs, Hungarians and Russians.

And we still continue to evolve as a nation in an age of demography shift among persons of color (including African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans).

Technology has fundamentally transformed the modern American experience, as one of heightened outreach and social engagement between all of us from all walks of life.

What will we think America will be a generation hence, and the one after that? We used to think a generation ago America was too good to fail. Now we think America is too big to sell.

Two distinct qualities have differentiated Americans from Europeans. It has been our pervading sense of humor and our inventiveness that makes Americans a ‘jack-of-all-trades.’

The dignity of this country is most evident in the everyday, commonplace, ‘run-of-the-mill’ American. America is extraordinary, because we are ordinary. We are so good at it. And that is why we work together so hard.

All we ask in return is for our country to have enough capital. So, we can get and keep our jobs. Our creativity, ingenuity and drive allow us to engage, use, and create the technology that keeps the capital flowing to finance these jobs.

We are competitive, and we love it.

We make ordinary things extraordinary. And we take extraordinary things and make them ordinary. For instance, consider the Patriot’s Post Rider now transformed into the Person’s E-mail. The production of Americans springs from the crops we grow, the coal and iron we mine, the gold and silver we invest, the cooper and lead we dig, the steel and autos we make, the cargo we train and truck, the science we advance, the mechanical arts we develop, the industries we build, and the commerce we exchange, both foreign and domestic.

This is why we are an extraordinary nation. We make our ordinary declarations of our constitution take hold and manifest into reality. This is what makes Americans good. This is what makes America work.

Because on the average, people here live the way only the rich can expect to live in most of the rest of the world. We just cannot forget that for a minute. Nor can we take this for granted.

Look around our homes. Most of us have running water, flushed toilets, a large refrigerator, a big screen TV, MP3 players, books, music, modest art, a car that runs (and we might add is among the safest cars ever produced), firm sturdy mattresses for a very restful sleep (thanks to my wonderful Chicago Booth business strategy professor Howard Haas, former CEO of Serta), fashionable clothes, the safest food and water, and plentiful pharmacies full of drugs, health and beauty aids, and cosmetics.

We love how Americans are truly American — capturing our courage, character and ordinary charm and spirit as an indispensable nation of extraordinary people. We have swag. Don’t we? What is wrong with that?

We invent jobs, not just look for jobs.

Americans express ourselves intellectually. We makes ourselves unique in our literature, and our art. But it is through our commitment to education, that America achieves her inventiveness and innovation.

America_superbowl

American education was born as an infant colonial institution of Massachusetts, alongside the state, the government, the church, and the family. In 1635, five years after its founding, the town of Boston resolved that “our brother, Philemon Pormont, shall be [entrusted] to become schoolmaster for the teaching and nurturing of children with us.” The General Court of Massachusetts, voted in 1636 an appropriation of 400 English pounds — an appropriation equivalent to nearly $40 billion by the Federal government today, for a new college, since known as Harvard, then just over a decade old, being founded October 28, 1623. [see Harvard University, Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 13, 38b-40c (1911)]

American innovation continued in our origination of public education, when the General Court of Massachusetts passed the epoch-making act, “the first of its kind in the world,” requiring “every town of 50 householders to establish a school, the master of which should be paid either by the parents of the children taught or by public tax, as the town committee might decide; and it further required every town of 100 families to set up a grammar school in which pupils might decide; and it further required every town of 100 families to set up a grammar school in which pupils might be prepared for the university. Moreover, a penalty in the form of a fine for the benefit of the nearest school was attached for failure to carry out the law.”

Horace Mann said of this act, “it is impossible for us to adequately conceive the boldness of this measure. Time has ratified its soundness. Two centuries of successful operation now proclaims it to be as [beneficial] as it was disinterested.”

Neither in the Declaration of Independence nor in the Constitution of the United States is there any mention of education. This is because the founders of the nation believed “the responsibility of maintaining schools rested on the several local communities.” The Federal government from the very beginning has aided education of the American people.

Our public access to education as our inventiveness and innovation began with the celebrated “Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, northwest of the River Ohio,” meaning all that region between western New York and Minnesota. This ordinance provided that “one section in every township (that is, one thirty-sixth of every township) should be set aside for the maintenance of public schools. The precedent thus established, because the policy of the nation. Every state admitted prior to 1848 reserved one section in every township for common schools; every state admitted since 1848 has reserved at least two sections. In addition, the national government has granted for seminaries and universities, two townships in every state and territory containing public land.” [cf. Nicholas Murray Butler, president of Columbia University, Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 8, 984b-988c (1911)]

America is Growth and Optimism.

Confidence and education is what makes the country first in so many innovative aspects and optimistic dimensions of growth. It is why we are first in business, first at The Olympics, first in baseball, first in jazz, first to end Slavery, first in-class, first in flight, first in space stationing, first in war, first in peace, first in democracy, first in competition, first in technology, first in capital, first in communications, first in markets, first in communities, first in universities, first in government, first in vision, first in vigilance, first in dreams, first in great societies — you continue to name them.

Confidence in risky and uncertain times can be fleeting. It is lasting, however, when viewed through the lens of America’s historical outlook on growth through engagement of advanced science and technology in a climate of innovation.

Innovations in science and technology have shaped America’s history. Like those created in antiquity by the military engineers of the Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, modern innovations are at the cutting-edge of mankind’s greatest achievements. What brings us through our history, springing from our passions and interests, are the remarkable milestones in American achievement that have defined who we are, and who we are becoming, which so fundamentally shape our lives.

America’s Achievements Change Lives.

American scientific and technological achievements have so fundamentally shaped our lives — changing people, ideas, and things. So, I have taken the liberty to respectfully initiate a brief list — broadly open for comment and discussion here for participation and inclusion by all — that reveals just how much America has achieved in enhancing the quality of life for people of all walks of life around the world.

So, take a quick glance through the centuries of A Brief History of U.S. Science & Technology Achievement (1752-2014) that ‘We The People’ have achieved On Getting to 2076! – America’s Tercentennial.

__________

APPENDIX A

Brief History of U.S. Science & Technology Achievement (1752-2014)

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ 

Chart 6 — Trends and Choices in Federal Spending through a Generation†

(Where Our Money Goes)

†1976-2012, excluding most recent Iraq and Afghanistan military supplementary spending, 2009-2012, in billions of constant 2007 dollars [cf. American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS; “Most data come from annual AAAS R&D budget reports. Additionally, some charts below rely on data collected by the National Science Foundation’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, and from the historical tables provided by the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB), via the President’s budget request. Constant-dollar conversions (adjusting for inflation) use OMB’s chained price index, found in historical table 10.1 from the most recent budget request.” Reproduced under Fair Use Guidelines of U.S. Copyright Law in protection of the stated copyright owner. Complete reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission. Copyright © 2007 AAAS, All rights reserved.]

18th Century

1752  Benjamin Franklin publishes findings on electricity.

1766  Benjamin Franklin invents bifocals.

1789  U.S. Congress creates the War Department.

1793  Eli Whitney invents cotton gin.

1798  U.S. Congress creates the Navy Department.

Chart 7 — Trends and Choices in Federal Sources of Funding through a Generation†

(Where Our Money Comes From)

†1976-2012, in billions of constant 2007 dollars [cf. American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS; “Most data come from annual AAAS R&D budget reports. Additionally, some charts below rely on data collected by the National Science Foundation’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, and from the historical tables provided by the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB), via the President’s budget request. Constant-dollar conversions (adjusting for inflation) use OMB’s chained price index, found in historical table 10.1 from the most recent budget request.” Reproduced under Fair Use Guidelines of U.S. Copyright Law in protection of the stated copyright owner. Complete reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission. Copyright © 2007 AAAS, All rights reserved.]

19th Century

1807  Fulton runs first commercial steamboat.

1834  Horse drawn harvester-reaper. Samuel Colt invents the revolver.

1837  Steel plow is conceived.

  • Procter and Gamble is born.

1839  Goodyear develops rubber.

1862 R.J. Gatling crafts the machine gun.

1869  Transcontinental Railroad completed in Utah.

1870  Elijah McCoy invents the automatic lubricator for locomotive steam engines of the Michigan Central Railroad, which came to be known as “The Real McCoy” – a commonplace phase of the English language.

Chart 8 — Trends and Choices in Federal Deficits (Surpluses) through Two Generations†

[Where Our Money Goes (and Comes)]

†1960-2012, excluding most recent Iraq and Afghanistan military supplementary spending, 2009-2012, in billions of constant 2007 dollars [cf. American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS; “Most data come from annual AAAS R&D budget reports. Additionally, some charts below rely on data collected by the National Science Foundation’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, and from the historical tables provided by the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB), via the President’s budget request. Constant-dollar conversions (adjusting for inflation) use OMB’s chained price index, found in historical table 10.1 from the most recent budget request.” Reproduced under Fair Use Guidelines of U.S. Copyright Law in protection of the stated copyright owner. Complete reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission. Copyright © 2007 AAAS, All rights reserved.]

1876  Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone.

  • Lewis Latimer was able to provide Bell with the blueprints and patent application expertise in submitting the required papers that allowed him to file his telephone patent on February 14, just a few hours before a rival inventor.
  • Granville T. Woods invents the telegraphony, which combined features of both the telephone and telegraph. The Bell Company later purchased Wood’s invention. Wood’s novel multiplex telegraph device not only helped dispatchers locate trains, but also allowed moving trains to communicate by telegraph.
  • Thomas Alva Edison invents the incandescent electric lamp in the finest research laboratory of the age in Menlo Park, New Jersey.

1877  Thomas Edison invents phonograph (circa. 1877-1879).

1879  Thomas Edison invents light bulb (circa. 1877-1879).

  • Procter and Gamble develops an inexpensive white soap of virtual purity at “99 and 44/100ths percent” – “so pure it floats” – Ivory Soap, creating America’s earliest product research laboratory at “Ivorydale” in Cincinnati, Ohio, dedicated to the science and engineering of soap-making, later on innovating Tide in 1946 – the world’s most powerful brand, and Prell Shampoo in 1950.

1881  First electrical power plant.

1883  First steel skyscraper in Chicago.

  • Jan Ernst Matzeliger revolutionizes shoe manufacturing inventing the “shoe lasting machine” that held a shoe on a last, gripped and pulled the leather down around the heel, set and drove in the nails, and then discharged the completed shoe.

1888  George Eastman makes hand-held camera.

1890  Thomas Edison establishes the Edison General Electric Company.

  • Edison encouraged Lewis Latimer to write the book, Incandescent Electric Lighting: A Practical Description of the Edison System. Published in 1890, it was extremely popular as it explained how an incandescent lamp produces light in an easy-to-understand manner. 
  • Hollerith’s punched cards used for 1890 Census, The U.S. Census Bureau contracts to use Herman Hollerith‘s punched card tabulating technology on the 1890 United States Census, reducing a 10-year process to two years and saving the government $5 million. Hollerith’s punched cards become the tabulating industry standard for input for the next 70 years. Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine Company is later merged into what becomes IBM.

1892  Edison General Electric Company combines its patents and technology with those of The Thomson-Houston Company to create the General Electric Company (GE), including America’s earliest business in lighting, transportation, industrial products, power transmissions, household appliances, and medical equipment.

Chart 9 — Trends and Choices in National Debt through Two Generations†

†1960-2012, excluding most recent Iraq and Afghanistan military supplementary spending, 2009-2012, in billions of constant 2007 dollars [cf. American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS; Reproduced under Fair Use Guidelines of U.S. Copyright Law in protection of the stated copyright owner. Complete reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission. Copyright © 2007 AAAS, All rights reserved.]

20th Century

1903  Wright Brothers fly first airplane at Kitty Hawk.

1905  Albert Einstein proposes first theory of relativity.

1907  GE developed heating and cooking devices.

1908  Henry Ford begins production of Model T, develops assembly line production.

1909  U.S. expedition led by Robert Peary reaches North Pole.

1914  Garrett Morgan was awarded a patent for a Safety Hood and Smoke Protector.

1916  Garrett Morgan invents the gas mask to rescue 32 men trapped during an explosion in an underground tunnel 250 feet beneath Lake Erie.

Chart 10 — Trends and Choices in National Debt as Percent of GDP through Two Generations†

†1960-2012, excluding most recent Iraq and Afghanistan military supplementary spending, 2009-2012, in billions of constant 2007 dollars [cf. American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS; “Most data come from annual AAAS R&D budget reports. Additionally, some charts below rely on data collected by the National Science Foundation’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, and from the historical tables provided by the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB), via the President’s budget request. Constant-dollar conversions (adjusting for inflation) use OMB’s chained price index, found in historical table 10.1 from the most recent budget request.” Reproduced under Fair Use Guidelines of U.S. Copyright Law in protection of the stated copyright owner. Complete reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission. Copyright © 2007 AAAS, All rights reserved.]

1917  GE develops the first airplane engine “booster” for the fledgling U.S. aviation industry, emerging as GE Aircraft Engines.

1920  Early radio broadcasting.

1923  Garrett Morgan was one of the first to apply for and acquire a U.S. patent for an inexpensive to produce traffic signal. The patent was granted on November 20. Garrett Morgan also had his invention patented in Great Britain and Canada.

  • Garrett Morgan stated in his patent for the traffic signal, “This invention relates to traffic signals, and particularly to those which are adapted to be positioned adjacent the intersection of two or more streets and are manually operable for directing the flow of traffic … In addition, my invention contemplates the provision of a signal which may be readily and cheaply manufactured.

1925  Charles Lindbergh makes first solo nonstop flight from New York to Paris.

1927  First “talking” movies.

1928  Color television patented.

  • IBM introduced the 80-column punched card, which doubled its informational capacity. This new format, soon dubbed the “IBM Card”, became and remained an industry standard until the 1970s.

1929  Aircraft makers Bill Boeing and Chance Vought join forces with Pratt & Whitney.

Chart 11 — Trends and Choices in Federal Spending and Sources of Funding as Percent of GDP through Two Generations†

†1962-2012, excluding most recent Iraq and Afghanistan military supplementary spending, 2009-2012, in billions of constant 2007 dollars [cf. American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS; “Most data come from annual AAAS R&D budget reports. Additionally, some charts below rely on data collected by the National Science Foundation’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, and from the historical tables provided by the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB), via the President’s budget request. Constant-dollar conversions (adjusting for inflation) use OMB’s chained price index, found in historical table 10.1 from the most recent budget request.” Reproduced under Fair Use Guidelines of U.S. Copyright Law in protection of the stated copyright owner. Complete reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission. Copyright © 2007 AAAS, All rights reserved.]

1930  Thomas Edison’s experiments with plastic filaments for light bulbs in 1893 led to the first GE Plastics Division.

1933  Armstrong invents FM radio.

1934  United Aircraft officially incorporates from the triumvirate’s eastern manufacturing assets.

1935  When the Social Security Act of 1935 – labeled as “the biggest accounting operation of all time”– came up for bid, IBM was the only bidder that could quickly provide the necessary equipment. IBM Chief Thomas J. Watson’s gamble brought the company a landmark government contract to maintain employment records for 26 million people. IBM’s successful performance on the contract soon led to other government orders, and by the end of the decade IBM has not only safely negotiated the Depression, it had risen to the forefront of the industry. Watson’s Depression-era decision to invest heavily in technical development and sales capabilities, education to expand the breadth of those capabilities, and his commitment to the data processing product line laid the foundation for 50 years of IBM growth and successes.

  • Charles Drew developed the long-term preservation of blood plasma. Prior to his discovery, blood could not be stored for more than two days because of the rapid breakdown of red blood cells. Drew had discovered that by separating the plasma (the liquid part of blood) from the whole blood (in which the red blood cells exist) and then refrigerating them separately, they could be combined up to a week later for a blood transfusion.

1937  IBM ushers in scientific research computing established at Columbia University in the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau.

1939  First helicopter.

1941  Manhattan Project to build atomic bomb begins.

Chart 12 — Trends and Choices in Federal Discretionary Spending through a Generation†

†1976-2012, excluding most recent Iraq and Afghanistan military supplementary spending, 2009-2012, in billions of constant 2007 dollars [cf. American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS; “Most data come from annual AAAS R&D budget reports. Additionally, some charts below rely on data collected by the National Science Foundation’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, and from the historical tables provided by the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB), via the President’s budget request. Constant-dollar conversions (adjusting for inflation) use OMB’s chained price index, found in historical table 10.1 from the most recent budget request.” Reproduced under Fair Use Guidelines of U.S. Copyright Law in protection of the stated copyright owner. Complete reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission. Copyright © 2007 AAAS, All rights reserved.]

1942  Enrico Fermi builds first nuclear reactor.

1943  Early computer prototypes developed for wartime use.

1944  IBM President Thomas J. Watson, Sr., joins the Advisory Committee of the United Negro College Fund (UNCF), and IBM contributes to the UNCF’s fund-raising efforts.

1945  IBM’s first research facility, the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University.

  • Pratt & Whitney powers half of all U.S. planes built during World War II.

1947  Chuck Yeager breaks sound barrier in flight.

  • First transistor developed.
  • U.S. Department of Defense established as a federal agency of more than half the annual federal discretionary budget, enacted by the National Security Act of 1947, with the National Military Establishment renamed the Department of Defense on August 10, 1949 as an amendment to the 1947 legislation, which all at once collected numerous crucial science and technology agencies, such as the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA).

1952  U.S. explodes hydrogen bomb.

1953  U.S. and Britain’s Watson and Crick find structure of DNA.

Chart 13 — Trends and Choices in Federal Discretionary Spending through a Generation†

†Source: AAAS analyses of R&D in annual AAAS R&D reports, in billions of constant 2007 dollars. *FY 2008 figures are latest American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS estimates of FY 2008 appropriations. R&D includes conduct of R&D and R&D facilities. Data to 1984 are obligations from the NSF Federal Funds survey. Constant-dollar conversions use GDP deflators from OMB. August 2007 Preliminary © 2007 AAAS; “Most data come from annual AAAS R&D budget reports. Additionally, some charts below rely on data collected by the National Science Foundation’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, and from the historical tables provided by the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB), via the President’s budget request. Constant-dollar conversions (adjusting for inflation) use OMB’s chained price index, found in historical table 10.1 from the most recent budget request.” Reproduced under Fair Use Guidelines of U.S. Copyright Law in protection of the stated copyright owner. Complete reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission. Copyright © 2007 AAAS, All rights reserved.

1954  China and U.S. develop first birth control pill.

1956  U.S. development of early computer languages, IBM Fortran, first magnetic hard disk drive.

1958  First nuclear powered submarines. NASA established as a federal agency.

1959  First electrical resistor and variable resistor discovered by Otis Boykin.

1960  Laser invented.

1962  First satellite launched.

  • Mercury Friendship 7 and NASA Astronaut John Glenn orbits earth 3 times.

1964  IBM introduces the magnetic tape Selectric typewriting, pioneering magnetic recording devices to typewritten work, giving rise to desktop word processing.

Chart 14 — Trends and Choices in R&D as Percent of Federal Budget through Two Generations†

†1962-2007, based on Budget of the U.S. Government FY 2008 in billions of constant 2008 dollars [cf. American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS; “Most data come from annual AAAS R&D budget reports. Additionally, some charts below rely on data collected by the National Science Foundation’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, and from the historical tables provided by the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB), via the President’s budget request. Constant-dollar conversions (adjusting for inflation) use OMB’s chained price index, found in historical table 10.1 from the most recent budget request.” Reproduced under Fair Use Guidelines of U.S. Copyright Law in protection of the stated copyright owner. Complete reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission. Copyright © 2007 AAAS, All rights reserved.]

1965  First electrical capacitor by Otis Boykin.

1966  IBM invents one-transistor Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) cells, which permit major increases in memory capacity. DRAM chips become the mainstay of modern computer memory systems: the “crude oil” of the information age is born.

1967  First electrical resistance capacitor by Otis Boykin.

1969  American astronauts walk on the moon.

  • George Carruthers was the principle inventor of the Far Ultraviolet Camera-Spectrograph, which would ultimately be used on the Apollo 16 mission to the moon.
  • The American National Standards Institute makes the IBM developed magnetic stripe technology a national standard, jump starting the credit card industry. Two years later, the International Organization for Standardization adopts the IBM design, making it a world standard.

1971  IBM introduces the floppy disk, an early highly portable personal computing data-storage device.

1973  Dr. Leo Esaki, an IBM Fellow who joined the company in 1960, shares the 1973 Nobel Prize in physics for his 1958 discovery of the phenomenon of electron tunneling. His discovery of the semiconductor junction called the Esaki diode finds wide use in electronics applications. His work in the field of semiconductors lays a foundation for further exploration in the electronic transport of solids.

1975  United Aircraft buys majority of Otis Elevator; changes name to United Technologies, which later in 1983, buys Carrier Corporation, an air conditioner manufacturer, and which later in 1999 sells its auto parts business and buys aerospace supplier Sundstrand Corp.

Chart 15 — Trends and Choices in R&D as Percent of Federal Discretionary Spending through Two Generations†

†1962-2007, based on Budget of the U.S. Government FY 2008 in billions of constant 2008 dollars [cf. American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS; “Most data come from annual AAAS R&D budget reports. Additionally, some charts below rely on data collected by the National Science Foundation’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, and from the historical tables provided by the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB), via the President’s budget request. Constant-dollar conversions (adjusting for inflation) use OMB’s chained price index, found in historical table 10.1 from the most recent budget request.” Reproduced under Fair Use Guidelines of U.S. Copyright Law in protection of the stated copyright owner. Complete reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission. Copyright © 2007 AAAS, All rights reserved.]

1976  Viking Mars Lander developed. SS-20 Missile Defense established.

1980 IBM invested in a small Seattle-based computer software firm of 80 employees, later to expand to well over 4000 employees of a ninety billion dollar juggernaut known as Microsoft.

  • IBM successfully builds the first prototype computer employing IBM Fellow John Cocke‘s RISC architecture. RISC simplified the instructions given to computers, making them faster and more powerful. Today, RISC architecture is the basis of most workstations and widely viewed as the dominant computing architecture.
  • The IBM Personal Computer goes mass market and helps revolutionize the way the world does business.

1981  AIDS identified.

  • First personal computers (IBM, Apple).
  • Patricia Bath invents the Laserphaco Probe, a surgical tool that uses a laser to vaporize cataracts of the eyes to eliminate blindness.

1983  Pershing-II Missile Defense established.

1988  IBM collaborates with the Merit Network, MCI Communications, the State of Michigan, and the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) to upgrade and expand the 56K bit per second NSFNET to 1.5M bits per second and later 45M bits per second. This partnership provides the network infrastructure and lays the groundwork for the explosive growth of the Internet in the 1990s. The NSFNET upgrade boosts network capacity, not only making it faster, but also allowing more intensive forms of data, such as the graphics now common on the World Wide Web, to travel across the Internet.

1989  World Wide Web created.

1994  Genetic engineering of food. 

1995  IBM scientists complete a two-year calculation – the largest single numerical calculation in the history of computing – to pin down the properties of an elusive elementary particle called a “glue-ball.”

  • eBay was founded in Pierre Omidyar’s San Jose living room, as a technological online marketplace for the sale of goods and services for individuals. In 1998, Pierre and his co-founder Jeff Skoll brought in Meg Whitman to sustain eBay’s success, through learned business experience of branding at companies, such as Hasbro, PepsiCo, and Disney, to build a strong vision for eBay, as a company business of “connecting people, not selling them things.” Hinged on a business model of average sale price, as a key metric in determining eBay‘s transaction fees, eBay forged partnerships with name brands, such as GM, Disney and Sun — which has sold $10 million worth of equipment and Sun now lists between 20 and 150 items per day.

1996 Stanford University graduates, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, launch Google, registering Google.com in 1997. An unincorporated Google, Inc. receives its first investment: $100,000 (£56,000) from Sun co-founder Andy Bechtolsheim.

1996  Consensus forms around theory of global warming.

1997  International space Station founded.

1998  PayPal, or known as Confinity, is founded. PayPal officially takes on its name in 2001.

1999  Human Genome Project completely sequences a chromosome’s DNA.

Chart 16 — Trends and Choices in R&D by Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics through a Generation

1970-2005, in billions of constant 2007 dollars [cf. National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, 2004-2006 American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS; “Most data come from annual AAAS R&D budget reports. Additionally, some charts below rely on data collected by the National Science Foundation’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, and from the historical tables provided by the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB), via the President’s budget request. Constant-dollar conversions (adjusting for inflation) use OMB’s chained price index, found in historical table 10.1 from the most recent budget request.” Reproduced under Fair Use Guidelines of U.S. Copyright Law in protection of the stated copyright owner. Complete reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission. Copyright © 2007 AAAS, All rights reserved.]

21st Century

2000  Door is open paving the way for molecular computing in the future. IBM scientists discover a way to transport information on the atomic scale that uses electrons instead of conventional wiring. This new phenomenon, called the Quantum mirage effect, enables data transfer within future nano-scale electronic circuits too small to use wires. The quantum mirage technique is a unique way of sending information through solid forms and could do away with wiring that connects nano-circuit components.

  • IBM delivers the world’s most powerful computer to the US Department of Energy, powerful enough to process an Internet transaction for every person on Earth in less than a minute. IBM built the supercomputer to accurately test the safety and effectiveness of the nation’s aging nuclear weapons stockpile. This computer is 1,000 times more powerful than Deep Blue, the supercomputer that beat Garry Kasparov in chess in 1997.

2001  Apple Computers develops the iPod portable music digital player.

  • IBM researchers build the world’s first transistors out of carbon nanotubes – tiny cylinders of carbon atoms that are 500 times smaller than silicon-based transistors and 1,000 times stronger than steel. The breakthrough is an important step in finding materials that can be used to build computer chips when silicon-based chips can’t be made any smaller.
  • IBM researchers create the world’s first logic-performing computer circuit within a single molecule, which may lead to a new class of smaller and faster computers that consume less power than today’s machines.

2002  Nanotechnology wearable fabrics invented.

  • Birth control patch invented.
  • Solar towers developed.
  • PayPal issues its Initial Public Offering (IPO). PayPal is acquired by eBay for US $1.5 Billion – the ultimate marketplace merger of the world’s largest auction site and online payments system, available in dollars, Euros and Pound Sterling, as a payments option on eBay UK in 2004, and launches in 2005 its China site, which operates under the name of BeiBao, in Simplified Chinese. PayPal expands to 103 markets and adds 10 currencies, including Singapore Dollar, Hong Kong Dollar, New Zealand Dollar, Swiss Franc, and more, surpassing 100 million accounts in 2006.

2004  Adidas creates first micro-technological recreation sneakers.

  • Google goes public as Initial Public Offering (IPO) at $85 a share. Gmail is launched, Google Maps and Google Earth launched in 2005, a satellite imagery-based mapping service, followed by Google Talk.

2004  Mark Zuckerberg and Eduardo Saverin launch Facebook.

2005  Facebook acquires Facebook.com domain for $200,000.

  • YouTube debuts as the online video sharing and viewing social community.

2008  For a record-setting ninth consecutive time, IBM takes the Number One spot in the ranking of the world’s most powerful supercomputers. The IBM computer built for the Roadrunner project at Los Alamos National Laboratory: the first in the world to operate at speeds faster than one quadrillion calculations per second: remains the world speed champion. The Los Alamos system is twice as energy efficient as the Number Two computer, using about half the electricity to maintain the same level of computing power.

2009  Retinal implants for the blind.

2011  June 16, 2011: IBM founded 100 years ago.

  • Mark Krantz and Jon Swartz in USA Today state “[IBM] has remained at the forefront through the decades … the fifth-most-valuable U.S. company [today] … demonstrated a strength shared by most 100-year-old companies: the ability to change … survived not only the Depression and several recessions, but technological shifts and intense competition as well.”

2012  Facebook is launched as Initial Public Offering (IPO) at an initial price set at $38 a share, and the stock closed at $38.23 on its first trading day.

  • NASA’s Mars Curiosity Rover successfully lands on the surface of Mars.

2013  Harvard epidemiologist, Caroline Buckee, uses big data population movements via mobile cellular phones to eradicate the spread of malaria.

  • USC neuroscientist, Theodore Berger, cracks code by which the brain forms long-term memories.
  • Eric Migicovsky invents the Pebble watch that pulls selected data from mobile phones, so users can absorb information with a mere glance.
  • Stanford undergraduates, Evan Speigel and Bobby Murphy, invent Snapchat, a social-media that replicates the unrecorded nature of ordinary conversation in the wake of the New York congressman Anthony Weiner scandal.

2014  When the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (widely-known as ‘Obamacare’) was hampered by a botched rollout of the much anticipated Healthcare.gov website, it was labeled as ‘the largest governmental information technology challenge of all time.’

  • As revamping of the Healthcare.gov website came up again for swift procurement, Accenture was the IT strategy solution that could rapidly provide the necessary re-launch of the Affordable Care Act.
  • Accenture’s gamble brought the firm a historic government contract to streamline the national health insurance enrollment of 8 million people by the March 2014 enrollment deadline.
  • Accenture’s successful performance on the contract has almost immediately led to public consensus that the IT strategy firm saved the Affordable Care Act.

 

Sources: http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/ModernInvention.htm

History of the Department of Defense, U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, A History of the Department of Defense Federally Funded Research and Development Centers, OTA-BP-ISS-157 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1995); History of IBM, History of General Electric, and History of Procter and Gamble, MIT Technology Review 10 Breakthrough Technologies 2013

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ 

__________

APPENDIX B

Sidenote

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ 

The President’s Scientists — Reminiscences of a White House Science Advisor

By D. Allan Bromley

Yale University Silliman Memorial Foundation Lecture, Yale University Press (1994)

The following are excerpted from this forty-seventh volume published on the Silliman Foundation Lectures, an annual course of lectures designed to illustrate the present and providence of God, as manifested in the natural and moral world through an orderly presentation of the facts of nature or history over dogmatic or polemical theology. Subjects range from the natural sciences and history, giving special attention to astronomy, chemistry, geology, and anatomy.

“MIT’s Victor Weisskopf describes the contribution of research to the U.S. economy as follows: “The total cost of all basic research from Archimedes to the present is less than the value of ten days of the world’s present industrial production.” Prior to World War II, the federal government appropriated very little spending for research enterprises outside its own agencies. Basic research integrated with education inside universities was largely funded through private philanthropy such as the Carnegie Corporation and the Rockefeller Foundation.

“In the seminal 1945 report to President Truman, Science: The Endless Frontier, Vannevar Bush outlined remarkable breakthroughs in radar and nuclear energy technologies and medical science during the war years to persuade President Truman to make a fundamental promise to America. That promise was that “if the public was prepared to support the activities of the nation’s scientists and engineers — primarily in the universities but also in industry — as they had during the war years, then the return in terms of quality of life, economic growth, and national security would be similarly dramatic. This promise has been abundantly fulfilled in the last half of the twentieth century, but in the mid-1940s it was a new and rather startling concept,” chronicled D. Allan Bromley, George H.W. Bush’s science advisor.

Bromley wrote further, “Before the war there had been two quite separate and distinct activities: natural philosophy, the understanding of nature, and invention, the mastery of nature. Natural philosophy was considered to be an essentially useless pursuit suitable for gentlemen scholars, whereas invention, which proceeded largely through trial and error, was considered the truly useful activity. The war years demonstrated that enormous benefits flowed from the intimate combination of the two, when understanding of the underlying science guided the invention.

“The U.S. Defense Department has had a long history of interaction with the nation’s universities even before either world war. From 1839 through 1879, the Navy had a rather remarkable one-man Office of Naval Research in the person of John Ericson. Early in this career, Ericson designed the USS Princeton, the first man-of-war in the world to be driven by a screw propeller … a warship of this importance clearly required appropriate armaments, so Ericson wen to seven of the nation’s universities and asked them to design 12-inch guns on the understanding that the resulting designs would be constructed and tested by the Navy, with the winning institution receiving an appropriate reward and further contracts.

“On a bright spring morning in 1845, the Princeton steamed out into Chesapeake Bay for the initial tests of its 12-inch guns. Fortunately for the universities, the first gun tested was designed by Captain Stockton of the Navy, because when it exploded, as it did, it killed the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Navy, a naval captain, a Congressman from Maryland, and, as the newspaper report of the day had it, “sundry other dignitaries.” Had it not been for the fact that President Tyler had been detained briefly to finish a military ballad below deck, he, too, would surely have been killed. This is the sort of thing that gives technology a bad name,” recounts Bromley.

“It was natural that the Defense Department should play a key role following the war just as it had during it,” argues Bromley, “and, in particular, the Office of Naval Research was given the responsibility of developing mechanisms for funding university activity (Vannevar Bush … did not see any need to mention industrial research in Science: The Endless Frontier) that would not compromise academic freedom or creativity.”

According to Bromley, “we owe an enormous debt to Dr. Emmanuel Piori and Captain Robert Conrad, who, in 1946, articulated the three principles that have been fundamental to all U.S. federal support in subsequent years. They are deceptively simple:

  1. Find the best people in the country on the basis of peer review.

  2. Fund them as generously as possible within the overall available resources to do what they think represents the best use of their time.

  3. Keep the hell out of their hair while they are doing it.

“Fundamental to this approach was the concept of investment rather than procurement. Piori and Conrad understood that in supporting university research they were not only going to get new knowledge and young minds trained to use that knowledge, but they also were building an infrastructure that would grow in ways that they could not predict but that they were prepared to believe would pay handsome dividends. This distinction between investment and procurement is one that must be reinforced on frequent occasions, as the nation often finds itself slipping back into procedures in which the same paperwork is involved in writing a contract for research with a university as in writing a contract for a submarine with a corporation like General Dynamics. This is the procurement approach.

“Even more startling in the 1940s than federal support of university research was the idea that peer review would be a dominant part of the funding mechanism — that the scientists themselves would decide how to spend the available resources for science. President Truman found this particularly difficult to accept and, because of that, held up the establishment of the National Science Foundation for several years.

“Throughout the 1950s and 1960s the Defense Department continued to play a dominant role in the federal support of research and development, though new agencies, such as the Atomic Energy Commission, the National Institutes of Health, and the National Science Foundation slowly picked up increasing fractions of total support. It is not usually recognized just how unique the American system is in world science and technology. We are unique in that more than twenty federal agencies support substantial programs of science and technology, not only in their own institutions but throughout the academic and industrial communities as well. In almost all other countries, a single agency is responsible for science and technology and is responsible for the distribution of a single research and development budget that is voted in one block by the appropriate legislative body. We are also unique in that our scientific and technological enterprise is built from the bottom up rather than top down, a reflection of the Piori and Conrad rules. Our national research and development budget comes together as a result of proposal pressure — proposals both from individuals and from groups that come together to support the development of shared programs and facilities.

“One of the advantages of our multiple agency support structure is that no really good idea went very long without attracting support; if one agency does not like the idea, there is always a reasonable probability that some other agency will find it attractive and entirely compatible with the mission objectives.

“The proposals flow into the agencies at a more or less steady rate during the year, and on arrival at the agency they are typically sent out to individual scientists and engineers across the country for peer review. On the basis of that review, they then may be included in the portfolio that the agency wishes to take forward or may be rejected, sometimes with suggestions for changes that might make them acceptable.”

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ 

__________

APPENDIX C

Science  Advice to the President of the United  States
The Act
Public Law 94-282, May 11, 1976 (under U.S. President Gerald R. Ford)
Amending National Science Foundation Act of 1950 (under U.S. President Harry S. Truman)

 

“To establish a science and technology policy for the United States, to provide for scientific and technological advice and assistance to the President, to provide a comprehensive survey of ways and means for improving the Federal effort in scientific research and information handling, and in the use thereof, to amend the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, and for other purposes.”

“President Richard M. Nixon eliminated the previous President’s Scientific Advisory Committee (PSAC) in 1973, rather than appointing a replacement for his second Science Advisor, Edward E. David Jr., who resigned, oftentimes disagreeing with Nixon, as Nixon often turned instead to his National Science Foundation Director for his science advice.

The United States Congress established the OSTP in 1976 (under President Gerald R. Ford) with a broad mandate to advise the President and others within the Executive Office of the President on the effects of science and technology on domestic and international affairs. The 1976 Act also authorizes OSTP to lead inter-agency efforts to develop and to implement sound science and technology policies and budgets and to work with the private sectorstate and local governments, the science and higher education communities, and other nations toward this end.”

The White House OSTP science advisory group, President’s Committee of Advisors for Science and Technology (PCAST), is not required by law, but it has been a presidential convention originating in 1933, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt first established his Science Advisory Board.

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ 

  • 18 U.S. Presidential Science Advisors (OSTP, P.L. 94-282, May 11, 1976),  
  • OSRD: Office of Scientific Research and Development, created in 1941 by FDR, Vannevar Bush, Chair, 1941-51.
  • PSAC: President’s Science Advisory Committee, 1951-73, IKE moved it to White House on November 21, 1957 in response to Space Race with Soviets.

– Vannevar Bush (FDR, OSRD, 1941-45, Truman, OSRD, 1945-51)

– Oliver E. Buckley (Truman, PSAC, 1951-52, IKE’s FCCS&T, 1959)

– Lee A. DuBridge (Truman, IKE, PSAC, 1952-56, Nixon, 1969-70)

– Isadore I. Rabi (IKE, PSAC, 1956-57)

– James R. Killian, Jr. (IKE, PSAC, 1957-59)

– George Kistiakowsky (IKE, PSAC, 1959-61)

– Jerome B. Wiesner (JFK’s OST, PSAC, 1961-63)

– Donald F. Hornig (LBJ, PSAC, 1964-69)

– Edward E. David, Jr. (Nixon, PSAC, 1970-73)

– H. Guyford Stever (Ford, OSTP, 1976-77)

– Frank Press (Carter, OSTP, 1977-81)

  • Benjamin  Huberman  (acting, 1981)

– George A. Keyworth II (Reagan, OSTP, 1981-85)

  • John  P.  McTague  (acting, 1986)
  • Richard  G.  Johnson  (acting, 1986)

– William R. Graham (Reagan, OSTP, 1986-89)

  • Thomas  P.  Rona  (acting, 1989)

– D. Allan Bromley (GHW Bush, OSTP, 1989-93)

– John H. Gibbons (Clinton, OSTP, 1993-98)

  • Kerri-Ann  Jones  (acting, 1998)

– Neal F. Lane (Clinton, OSTP, 1998-2001)

  • Rosina  Bierbaum  (acting, 2001)
  • Clifford  Gabriel  (acting, 2001)

– John H. Marburger III (GW Bush, OSTP, 2001-09)

– John Holdren (Obama, OSTP, 2009-17)

– Vacant (Trump, OSTP, 2017-present)

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ 

__________

Oliver McGee is professor and former department chair (2016-17) of mechanical engineering at Texas Tech University. He is an aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineer. He is former United States deputy assistant secretary of transportation for technology policy (1999-2001) in the Clinton Administration, and former senior policy adviser in the Clinton White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (1997-1999).

Follow Oliver on Twitter and Google+. Learn more at Partnership Possibilities for America.

Book Oliver as speaker at “Great Black Speakers” or Partnership Possibilities for America.

 

(Visited 1,879 times, 1 visits today, 73,275,456 overall visits across all posts)

Thank you so much for your time in reading this article. Will you please share it across your Facebook, Twitter, Google and LinkedIn social media? I do await your comments on this article.

Leave a Reply