Dec 032018
 

35 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Since 1852, only 36 Americans, including 4 Unknown Soldiers, 4 private citizens, 12 U.S. Presidents, and 13 U.S. Senators, including now the 41st President of the United States George Herbert Walker Bush, and previously in 2018 @SenJohnMcCain, have lain in state or repose or honor at the U.S. Capitol Rotunda, according to the Architect of the Capitol (listed below in reverse chronological order), via Newsweek.

William Howard Taft and Robert Taft, both of Cincinnati, Ohio, are the only father-and-son pair to have been so honored.

 

36. George Herbert Walker Bush

December 3-5, 2018

(via, VOA News) The flag-draped casket of former President George H.W. Bush lays inside the Rotunda of the Capitol in Washington, Dec. 3, 2018.

“Former U.S. President George H.W. Bush will lie in state in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda starting Monday evening as Americans honor the life of the country’s 41st president.

The Capitol will be open for dignitaries and the public to pay their respects through early Wednesday, with visitors allowed to walk past Bush’s casket. He died in Texas, his home state, late Friday at the age of 94 after several years of failing health.

U.S. Vice President George H. W. Bush, right, and his wife Barbara Bush pose in front of the Taj Mahal, the 17th century monument to love was built by a Mughal Emperor Sahajahan in memory of his beloved queen who bore 14 children, Saturday, May 13, 1984, Agra, India. (AP Photo/Sondeep Shankar)

HOUSTON, TX – APRIL 20, 2018: In this handout provided by the Office of George H.W. Bush, former President George H. W. Bush looks at the casket with his daughter Dorothy “Doro” Bush Koch as they wait for the mourners during the visitation of former first lady Barbara Bush at St. Martin’s Episcopal Church Friday, April 20, 2018, in Houston, Texas. Barbara Bush died on April 17, at the age of 92. (Photo by Mark Burns – Pool/Office of George H.W. Bush via Getty Images)

A military honor guard carries the casket of former U.S. President George H.W. Bush at Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, U.S., December 3, 2018. REUTERS/Yuri Gripas – RC192D96E180

“The flag-draped casket of former President George H.W. Bush is carried by a joint services military honor guard into St. Martin’s Episcopal Church Thursday, Dec. 6, 2018, in Houston.” (Photo Credit: Jack Gruber, USA TODAY)

 

35. John S. McCain

August 26-27, 2018, and on August 31, 2018

“My fellow Americans, whom I’ve gratefully served for 60 years, and especially my fellow Arizonans, thank you for the privilege of serving you and for the rewarding life that service in uniform and in public office has allowed me to lead.”

America is “the world’s greatest republic, a nation of ideals, not blood and soil.”

“I‘ve tried to serve our country honorably. I’ve made mistakes, but I hope my love for America will be weighed favorably against them.”

“We all love our country, we will get through these challenging times. We will come through them stronger than before. We always do.”

“Do not despair of our present difficulties, but believe always in the promise and greatness of America,” McCain wrote before his death Saturday. Share these last words of @SenJohnMcCain as he died Saturday, August 25, 2018.

@SenJohnMcCain, 81, is buried Sunday, September 2, 2018, @USNavy @NavalAcademy in Annapolis, Maryland, after he lies in state at the Arizona Capitol in Phoenix on Wednesday, August 29, 2018, and the U.S. Capitol Rotunda on Sunday-Monday, August 26-27, and on Friday, August 31, 2018, before his final funeral service Saturday, September 1, 2018 at the National Cathedral in Washington, DC.

Chief of Staff John Kelly, Defense Secretary James Mattis, and National Security Advisor John Bolton along with Jared Kushner and Ivanka Trump will represent the @WhiteHouse at McCain’s National Cathedral funeral service in Washington, DC.

@OliverMcGee on AZ Senator #JohnMcCain #FoxNews Tribute
@OliverMcGee on @SenJohnMcCain's @FoxNews Tribute
 @FoxNews @FoxandFriends

(National Cathedral Funeral Procession of Senator John McCain on Saturday, September 1, 2018)

As reported in the Washington Post, ““I’ve made more mistakes than most anybody you will ever know,” McCain said in the interview, conducted for the 2017 Naval History Conference. “But one thing has guided me, is what I learned the first day I walked through the main gate at the Naval Academy. And that was do the right thing, and do it honorably, and you can never go wrong.”

It is Annapolis that McCain has returned to, again and again, in life and in death.

McCain’s father and grandfather are buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. 

But Admiral Charles “Chuck” Larson, a longtime friend and classmate, is buried at the academy in Maryland.”

(Pallbearers carried Mr. McCain’s coffin into the Arizona State Capitol on Wednesday. Credit Caitlin O’Hara for The New York Times)

“Larson reserved four plots before he died in 2014 — two for himself and McCain, and their wives. 

McCain’s plot is near where the two men first met, “back where it began,” he wrote in his recent book “The Restless Wave,” when he revealed Annapolis will be his final resting place.

“I will go to my grave in gratitude to my Creator for allowing me to stand witness to such courage and honor. And so will you,” McCain said. “My time is slipping by. Yours is fast approaching. You will know where your duty lies.”” 

(Below is McCain’s 1958 Class Photo at The Naval Academy in Annapolis).

 

34. Billy Graham

February 28–March 1, 2018; One of only 4 private American citizens to Lay in Honor

“Minister, evangelist and adviser to presidents. Died February 21, 2018, in Montreat, North Carolina. 

Authority for use of the Rotunda granted by House Concurrent Resolution 107, 115th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to February 26, 2018.”

According to TIME, “the practice of U.S. elected officials and military leaders lying in state at the Capitol began with Senator Henry Clay in 1852, and since then more than two dozen people — including 11 Presidents — have received that posthumous send-off in the Rotunda. Many of those services, including those for Supreme Court Justices Thurgood Marshall and Warren Burger, have used the same wooden framework constructed to prop up Abraham Lincoln’s coffin in 1865. But Graham is only the fourth private citizen to “lie in honor,” rather than “lie in state,” in recognition of his contributions to the nation.”

 

33. Daniel K. Inouye

December 20, 2012

“Senator Inouye was the first congressman to represent Hawaii when it became a state in 1959. He served in the U.S. Senate from 1963 until his death, on December 17, 2012. 

Inouye was the second-longest-serving senator in history and served as president pro tempore of the U.S. Senate. He was a World War II hero and given a Medal of Honor for his service.”

 

32. Gerald R. Ford Jr.

December 30, 2006–January 2, 2007

“Ford was a member of the House of Representatives from Michigan, January 3, 1949 to December 6, 1973, when he resigned to become vice president. 

He was vice president of the United States from December 6, 1973 to August 9, 1974, when President Richard M. Nixon resigned. Ford served as president of the United States from August 9, 1974 to January 20, 1977. 

President Gerald R. Ford Jr. died December 26, 2006, in Rancho Mirage, California, after adjournment of the 109th Congress, 2nd session. Authority for use of the Capitol Rotunda was granted by the speaker of the House of Representatives and the majority leader of the Senate. No resolution.”

 

31. Rosa Parks

October 30 and 31, 2005; One of only 4 private American citizens to Lay in Honor.

“Civil rights pioneer Rosa Parks died October 24, 2005, in Detroit. Authority for use of the Rotunda granted by Senate Concurrent Resolution 61, 109th Congress, 1st Session; agreed to October 29, 2005.”

 

30. Ronald Wilson Reagan

June 9–11, 2004.

“Reagan was governor of California from 1967 to 1975 and president of the United States from January 20, 1981 to January 20, 1989. 

He died June 5, 2004, in Bel-Air, California. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by Senate Concurrent Resolution 115, 108th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to June 9, 2004.”

 

29. Jacob Joseph Chestnut

28. John Michael Gibson

July 28, 1998; Two of Only 4 private American citizens to Lay in Honor

“Chestnut and Gibson were United States Capitol police officers killed at the U.S. Capitol in the line of duty on July 24, 1998. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 310, 105th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to July 27, 1998. Officer Chestnut and Detective Gibson were the first whose remains lay in honor in the Rotunda.”

 

27. Claude Denson Pepper

June 1 and 2, 1989

“Pepper served as U.S. Senator from Florida November 4, 1936 to January 3, 1951. He was a member of the House of Representatives from Florida from January 3, 1963, until his death, on May 30, 1989, in Washington, D.C. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 139, 101st Congress, 1st Session; agreed to May 31, 1989.”

 

26. Unknown Soldier of the Vietnam War

May 25–28, 1984

“Chosen to honor the unknown Americans who lost their lives while serving in the Armed Forces of the United States in Southeast Asia from 1959–1972. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 296, 98th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to May 17, 1984.”

 

25. Hubert H. Humphrey

January 14-15, 1978

“Humphrey served as U.S. senator from Minnesota from January 3, 1949 to December 29, 1964, when he resigned to become vice president. He was vice president of the United States from January 20, 1965 to January 20, 1969. Humphrey then returned to the Senate from November 3, 1970, until his death. He died January 14, 1978, in Waverly, Minnesota, after adjournment of the 95th Congress, 1st Session. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by the speaker of the House of Representatives and the majority leader of the Senate. No resolution.” 

 

24. Lyndon Baines Johnson

January 24 and 25, 1973

“Johnson was a member of the House of Representatives from Texas from April 10, 1937 to January 3, 1949. He was a U.S. Senator from Texas from January 3, 1949 to January 3, 1961, when he resigned, having been elected vice president of the United States. Johnson served as vice president from January 20, 1961, to November 22, 1963, when he assumed the presidency. He served as president until January 20, 1969. 

Johnson died on January 22, 1973, near Johnson City, Texas. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 90, 93rd Congress, 1st Session; agreed to January 23, 1973.”

 

23. J. Edgar Hoover

May 3 and 4, 1972

“Hoover was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, serving from 1924 until his death. He died on May 2, 1972, in Washington, D.C. 

According to the New York Times, “Acting Attorney General Rich ard G. Kleindienst announced the death at 11 A.M., after F.B.I. offices around the world had been given the news and reports of it began to circulate here. Congress promptly voted its permission for his body to lie in state in the Capitol Ro tunda—an honor accorded to only 21 persons before, (23 persons before, when we now include below, 17. Unknown Soldier of World War II, and 16. Unknown Soldier of the Korean War, May 28–30, 1958) of whom eight were Presidents or former Presidents.”

Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 600, 92nd Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to May 2, 1972.”

 

22. Everett McKinley Dirksen

September 9 and 10, 1969

“Dirksen was a member of the House of Representatives from Illinois from March 4, 1933 to January 3, 1949. He was a U.S. senator from Illinois, January 3, 1951, until his death, September 7, 1969, in Washington, D.C. (He suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest and died, at age 73. Dirksen was buried at Glendale Memorial Gardens in Pekin). Senate Resolution 254, 91st Congress, 1st Session, agreed to September 8, 1969; extended invitations to memorial service in the Rotunda, September 9, 1969.” 

(President Richard Nixon paid his last respects and tributes to Sen. Dirksen in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda below in 1969. In 1972, one of the Senate’s buildings was renamed the Dirksen Senate Office Building in his honor.)

 

21. Dwight D. Eisenhower

March 30 and 31, 1969

“Eisenhower graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1915, was promoted to general of the army in 1944, and was named president of Columbia University in 1948. He served as president of the United States from January 20, 1953, to January 20, 1961. 

Eisenhower died March 28, 1969, in Washington, D.C., during the 91st Congress, 1st Session. No resolution. (Richard Nixon pays tribute to IKE in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda above in 1969).

 

20. Herbert Clark Hoover

October 23–25, 1964

“Hoover served as secretary of commerce for presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. He was food administrator under President Woodrow Wilson. Hoover also served as chairman of the Ccommission on the organization of executive branch of government  from 1947 to 1949 and from 1953 to 1955. 

He was president of the United States from March 4, 1929, to March 3, 1933. Hoover died October 20, 1964, in New York City, after adjournment of the 88th Congress, 2nd Session. No resolution.”

 

19. Douglas MacArthur

April 8 and 9, 1964

“MacArthur was superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point from 1919–1922; appointed chief of staff of the Army on November 21, 1930; and appointed general of the Army on December 18, 1944. From July 26, 1941, through April 11, 1951, he served in the Pacific and Far East in various allied commands. MacArthur died April 5, 1964, in Washington, D.C. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by Senate Concurrent Resolution 74, 88th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to April 6, 1964.”

 

18. John F. Kennedy

November 24 and 25, 1963

“Kennedy was a member of the House of Representatives from Massachusetts, January 3, 1947 to January 3, 1953. U.S. Senator from Massachusetts January 3, 1953, to December 22, 1960, when he resigned to become president. 

Was president of the United States from January 20, 1961, until his death. Assassinated in Dallas on November 22, 1963, during the 88th Congress, 1st Session. No resolution.” 

 

17. Unknown Soldier of World War II 

16. Unknown Soldier of the Korean War

May 28–30, 1958

“Chosen to honor and perpetuate the memory of the heroes who gave their lives while serving overseas in the Armed Forces of the United States during World War II and the Korean War, and whose identities were unknown. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 242, 85th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to March 6, 1958.”

 

15. Robert A. Taft

August 2 and 3, 1953

“Taft served as U.S. Senator from Ohio from January 3, 1939, until his death. He died July 31, 1953, in New York City, during 83rd Congress, 1st Session, Senate Resolution 158, 83rd Congress, 1st Session; agreed to August 1, 1953, extended invitation to the memorial service in the Rotunda August 3, 1953.”

“In 1957, a committee led by Senator John F. Kennedy selected Taft as one of five of the greatest Senators, whose portraits would adorn the President’s Room off the Senate floor. Taft continues to be regarded by historians as one of the most powerful U.S. Senators of the twentieth century.

Robert Alphonso Taft was born on September 8, 1889. He was the oldest child of U.S. President William Howard Taft and his wife Helen Louise “Nellie” Herron and the grandson of Attorney General and Secretary of War Alphonso Taft. As a child he spent four years in the Philippines, where his father was governor. As an adolescent he was a brilliant academic. He finished first in his class at the Taft School in Cincinnati (run by his uncle), at Yale College and at Harvard Law School, graduating in 1913. He edited the Harvard Law Review. Following his graduation, Taft scored the highest mark in the state on the Ohio bar exam in 1913. He practiced law for four years with the firm of Maxwell and Ramsey (now Graydon Head & Ritchey LLP) in Cincinnati. He then worked in Washington for the Food and Drug Administration, before returning to Cincinnati to start his own law office. In 1924, he and his brother Charles helped form the law partnership Taft, Stettinius, and Hollister, with whom he continued to be associated until his death. The firm continues to carry his name today.

He was strongly criticized both by Republicans and Democrats for this. Senator John F. Kennedy in his bestselling book “Profiles in Courage,” applauded Taft’s principled stand even in the face of great bipartisan criticism.

When the Republicans took control of Congress in 1947, Taft became Chair of the Senate Labor Committee. He wrote the 1947 Taft–Hartley Act, which remains the basic labor law today. It banned “unfair” union practices, outlaws closed shops, and authorized the President to seek federal court injunctions to impose an eighty-day cooling-off period if a strike threatened the national interest. When President Harry Truman vetoed it, Taft convinced both houses of Congress to override the veto.

Taft was non-interventionist who did not see Stalin’s Soviet Union as a major threat. He saw the real dangers as big government and runaway spending. He opposed NATO and he took the lead among Republicans in condemning President Harry Truman’s handling of the Korean War. Taft questioned the constitutionality of the war itself. He said:

“In the case of Korea, where a war was already under way, we had no right to send troops to a nation, with whom we had no treaty, to defend it against attack by another nation, no matter how unprincipled that aggression might be, unless the whole matter was submitted to Congress and a declaration of war or some other direct authority obtained.” “


14. John Joseph Pershing

July 18 and 19, 1948

“Pershing was general of the Armies of the United States. He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1886 and devoted his entire life to military service. 

He served as chief of staff of the Army 1921–1924; commander of American expeditionary forces, World War I; distinguished service during the Philippine insurrection and Spanish-American War. 

Pershing died July 15, 1948, in Washington, D.C., during recess of the 80th Congress, 2nd Session. No resolution.”

 

13. William Howard Taft

March 11, 1930

“Taft served as president of United States from March 4, 1909, to March 4, 1913. He was chief justice of the United States Supreme Court from July 11, 1921, to February 3, 1930. 

Taft died on March 8, 1930, in Washington, D.C., during 71st Congress, 2nd Session. No resolution.”

The Tafts had four sons: William Howard Taft III (1915–1991), a future Ambassador to Ireland; Robert Alphonso Taft, Jr. (1917–1993), a future U.S. Senator (shown on the right above next to U.S. President and U.S. Chief Justice William Howard Taft); Lloyd Bowers Taft (1923–1985), an investment banker in Cincinnati, and Horace Dwight Taft (1925–1983), a professor of physics and dean at Yale. Two of Robert Taft’s grandsons are Robert Alphonso “Bob” Taft III (born 1942), Governor of Ohio from 1999 to 2007, and William Howard Taft IV (born 1945), Deputy Secretary of Defense from 1984 to 1989.

 

12. Warren G. Harding

August 8, 1923

“Harding served as U.S. senator from Ohio, March 4, 1915, to January 13, 1921, when he resigned, having been elected president. He was president of United States from March 4, 1921, until his death. 

Harding died August 2, 1923, in San Francisco, after adjournment of the 67th Congress, 4th Session. No resolution.”

 

11. Unknown Soldier of World War I

November 9–11, 1921

(General John Joseph Pershing stands and salutes in front to the casket of the Unknown Soldier of World War I in 1921 inside the U.S. Capitol Rotunda)

“Chosen to honor and perpetuate the memory of the heroes who gave their lives in World War I, the body was that of an unknown American who served as a member of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe. Congress was in session, 67th Congress, 1st Session. No resolution.”

 

10. George Dewey

January 20, 1917

“Dewey was admiral of the Navy and was a hero of Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War. He died January 16, 1917, in Washington, D.C. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 68, 64th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to January 18, 1917.”

George Dewey (December 26, 1837 – January 16, 1917) was an admiral of the United States Navy. “He is best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. He is also the only person in the history of the United States to have (first) attained the rank of Admiral of the Navy, the most senior rank in the United States Navy.”

“By act of Congress he was promoted to the special rank of Admiral of the Navy in 1903 with his date of rank retroactive to 1899. A special military decoration, the Battle of Manila Bay Medal (commonly called the Dewey Medal), was struck in honor of Dewey’s victory at Manila Bay. It was awarded to every American officer, Sailor and Marine present at the battle. The medals were designed by Daniel Chester French, sculptor of the Lincoln Memorial, and produced by Tiffany & Co. Each medal was engraved with the recipient’s name, rank and ship. Since his own image appeared on the obverse of the medal, out of modesty, Dewey wore his medal reversed. Dewey was one of only four Americans in history (the other three being Admiral William T. Sampson, Admiral Richard E. Byrd and General John J. Pershing) who were entitled to wear a US Government issued medal with their own image on it.”

 

9. Pierre Charles L’Enfant

(Re-interment) April 28, 1909

“L’Enfant was the planner of the city of Washington, D.C. He died June 14, 1825, and was buried on Digges Farm in Prince George’s County, Maryland. His remains were brought to the U.S. Capitol on April 28, 1909, to be reinterred at Arlington National Cemetery. Senate Concurrent Resolution 2, 61st Congress, 1st Session granted use of the Rotunda; agreed to March 26, 1909.”

 

8. William McKinley, Jr.

September 17, 1901

“McKinley was a member of House of Representatives from Ohio, March 4, 1877, to May 27, 1884, and again from March 4, 1885, to March 3, 1891. He served as governor of Ohio from 1892 to 1896 and as President of United States, March 4, 1897, until his death. 

McKinley was assassinated September 6, 1901, in Buffalo, New York, and died there September 14, 1901, after adjournment of the 56th Congress, 2nd Session. No resolution.”

 

7. John A. Logan

December 30-31, 1886

“Logan was a member of House of Representatives from Illinois, March 4, 1859, to April 2, 1862, when he resigned to enter the Union Army, and again from March 4, 1867, until March 3, 1871. He served as U.S. Senator from Illinois, March 4, 1871, to March 3, 1877, and again from March 4, 1879, to December 26, 1886. 

“After the Civil war, Logan, who had always been a staunch partisan, was identified with the radical wing of the Republican Party. His forceful, passionate speaking, popular on the platform, was less effective in the halls of legislation. In 1868, he was one of the managers in the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson.”

(Below is a site of American Civil War by Illinoisans, including Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and John A. Logan).

Around three o’clock in the afternoon on December 26, Logan died at his home in Columbia HeightsWashington, D.C. 

“Logan died on December 26, 1886, in Washington, D.C., during the 49th Congress, 2nd Session. No resolution.”

After his death, Logan’s body lay in state in the United States Capitol

An equestrian statue stands in Logan Circle in Washington, D.C., which gives its name to the surrounding neighborhood. 

John A. Logan’s funeral was at Hutchinson’s vault.

“Logan’s final resting place at the U.S. Soldiers’ and Airmen’s Home National Cemetery is a granite, Norman-style mausoleum, design by the former supervising architect of the U.S. Treasury Department, Alfred B. Mullett, which houses the remains of General John A. Logan; his wife, Mary S. Logan; daughter, Mary Logan Tucker; and grandsons, Captain Logan Tucker and George E. Tucker.”

 

6. James A. Garfield

September 21–23, 1881

“Garfield was a member of House of Representatives from Ohio from March 4, 1863, to November 8, 1880, when he resigned, having been elected president. He served as President of the United States from March 4, 1881, until his death. 

Garfield was assassinated July 2, 1881, in Washington, D.C., and died September 19, 1881, in Elberon, New Jersey, after adjournment of 46th Congress, 3rd Session. No resolution.”

(White House draped in mourning for President James A. Garfield, September 1881).

 

5. Henry Wilson

November 25 and 26, 1875

“Wilson served as a U.S. Senator from Massachusetts from January 31, 1855, to March 3, 1873, when he resigned to become vice president of the United States. He was vice president from March 4, 1873, until his death, on November 22, 1875. 

Wilson died in the vice president’s room in the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C., after adjournment of the 43rd Congress, 2nd Session. No resolution.”

 

4. Charles Sumner

March 13, 1874

“Sumner served as U.S. Senator from Massachusetts deom April 24, 1851, until his death, March 11, 1874. He died in Washington, D.C., during the 43rd Congress. No resolution.”

As reported in the Anchorage Daily News, by Steve Haycox, professor emeritus of history at the University of Alaska Anchorage, “When he died of a heart attack on March 11, 1874, 143 years ago this month (on March 23, 2017), Charles Sumner, the Massachusetts senator who had shepherded the Alaska Purchase Treaty through Senate ratification, lay in state in the Capitol rotunda, only the second senator to be so honored (the first being Henry Clay).

That was not because of his critical, but often overlooked, role in facilitating the Alaska purchase. It was rather a tribute to his long and fiery career as an uncompromising champion of abolition, and full civil and property rights for former slaves.”

 

3. Thaddeus Stevens

August 13–14, 1868

“Stevens was a member of the House of Representatives from Pennsylvania, March 4, 1849, to March 3, 1853, and again from March 4, 1859, until his death on August 11, 1868. 

He died in Washington, D.C., during recess of the 40th Congress, 2nd Session, and lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda. No resolution.”

 

2. Abraham Lincoln

April 19–21, 1865

“Lincoln was a member of the House of Representatives from Illinois, March 4, 1847, to March 3, 1849. He was president of the United States from March 4, 1861, until his death. 

Lincoln was assassinated April 14, 1865, in Washington, D.C., and died there April 15, 1865, after adjournment of the 38th Congress, 2nd Session. 

The historic catafalque was constructed to support Lincoln’s casket during his lying in state. No resolution.”

 

1. Henry Clay

July 1, 1852

“Henry Clay was a member of the House of Representatives for five non-consecutive terms (1811–1825). He served as speaker of the House in 1811–1814, 1815–1820 and 1823–1825. He was secretary of state from 1825 to 1829. Clay also served as U.S. senator from Kentucky intermittently for 18 years between 1806 and 1852. He died June 29, 1852, in Washington, D.C., during the 32nd Congress, 1st Session, becoming the first person honored by a funeral ceremony in the Capitol Rotunda. No resolution.”

__________

Appendix

 
Lying in State 
 
“Lying in state occurs when the casket of a member of government (or former member of government) is placed on view in the principal government building of a country or state to allow the public to pay their respects.  

Examples of this would include President Gerald Ford or Senator Daniel Inouye lying in state in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda, or Congressman Paul Gillmor lying in state in the Ohio State Capitol.  

Lying in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol is authorized by Joint Resolution of Congress.

A guard of honor maintains a vigil over the remains throughout the period of time the remains lie in state. Public viewing is generally allowed during the lying in state.

Lying in Repose

Lying in repose occurs when the casket of a member of government (or former member of government) is placed on view in any other building to allow the public to pay their respects. 

Examples would include President Reagan at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California in 2004, President Gerald Ford at St. Margaret’s Episcopal Church in Palm Desert, California in 2006, and Senator John McCain at the Arizona Capitol in Phoenix, Arizona in 2018.

 
[via, Wikipedia]

Supreme Court Justices “lie in repose” in the Great Hall of the United States Supreme Court Building.

 
Lying in Honor
 
The term “lying in honor” encompasses two different scenarios:
    1.  When the casket of an individual who is not a member of government is placed on view in the principal government building of a country or state to allow the public to pay their respects.  An example would be Rosa Parks in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda.

    2.  When the casket of a member of government (or former member of government) is placed on view in the U.S. Capitol, but not in the Capitol Rotunda, to allow the public to pay their respects.  Examples include Senator Robert Byrd and Senator Frank Lautenberg lying in honor in the Senate Chamber.”

 
[via, Wikipedia]
 
“The United States Congress has created a similar—though not identical—privilege for distinguished Americans who do not qualify for a lying in state designation. In the process of “lying in honor,” the honor guard in the Rotunda is provided by the Capitol Police or another suitable source. 

In 1998, Chestnut and Gibson were killed while defending the Capitol against a shooter. Congress approved their remains to lie in honor in the Rotunda. Chestnut was the first African American to lie in honor. In 2005, upon the death of civil rights activist Rosa Parks, Congress authorized her remains to lie in honor at the Rotunda; Parks was the second African American and the first woman to lie in honor in the Capitol Rotunda. Graham was the first religious leader to be honored in this way.”

 
 
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Nov 262015
 

Ever wonder which executives of the United States and of the several states we can give special thanks to for Thanksgiving Day?

Giving-Thanks

Thanksgiving Day is annually observed in the United States with religious services in churches to give thanks to God for the blessings of the year. Especially since its institution in New England, where the custom of a day of reverence for giving thanks originated, as a celebration of family reunion, Thanksgiving Day reminds us all of charitable memories of “going back home to the old farmhouse kitchen, and the pantry crowded with good things to eat,” according to the 1911 classic edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, the oldest in the English-speaking world. 

Cover Photo Credit: Norman Rockwell

Partaking in giving thanks, originally, was a harvest thanksgiving, a festival sort-of-speak in the late autumn, after the crops have been gathered, as an outgrowth of the very ancient harvest-time family reunion celebrations of old England.

Photo Credit: The Fictional Ceremonial Great Feast in The Great Hall of the Children’s Book Classic Harry Potter

First Thanksgiving in the New World

Plymouth Colony’s first winter in 1621, was so severely marked with danger that it killed nearly half of the Pilgrimage in residence. As the winter turned into spring planting and summer growing of crops, the corn was gathered in the fall of 1621. Governor Bradford decreed a day of giving thanks, essentially establishing the first Thanksgiving in the New World here in North America.

The great feast was prepared by a few women in the colony, who spent days boiling and baking and roasting, as children turned the roasts on the spits over open fires. Guests included scores of native Americans, who brought their own share of wild turkeys and vegetables to the great feast tables made out of wooden cabin doors. As pilgrims and native Americans sat down at the tables, prayers and sermons and songs of praise began three days of a Thanksgiving festival in the fall of 1621.

Going forward,”the Pilgrims set apart a day for thanksgiving at Plymouth immediately after their first harvest, in 1621; the Massachusetts Bay Colony for the first time celebrated a day of giving thanks in 1630, and frequently thereafter until about 1860, when it became an annual festival in the [Massachusetts Bay Colony],” according to the classic Encyclopedia Britannica.

From Plymouth the custom of giving thanks in the late fall quickly spread to the other colonies, eventually leading to the governors of each of the colonies proclaiming an annual day of giving thanks. For instance, Thanksgiving was first observed in Connecticut, as early as 1639 and annually in the state after 1647, except in 1675. The Dutch in New Netherland appointed a day for giving thanks in 1644 and occasionally thereafter.

During the Revolutionary War, “eight special days of giving thanks were observed after signal victories or wonderful deliverances from danger,” according to the classic 1917 edition of The World Book Encyclopedia.

The United States Continental Congress appointed one or more thanksgiving days of the year, except in 1777, each time recommending to the governors of the several states that they proclaim observances of days for giving thanks, according to the classic Encyclopedia Britannica.

President George Washington issued a general proclamation and appointed a day of thanksgiving on Thursday, November 26, 1789, and appointed another day of giving thanks in November 1795. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church in America announced the first Thursday in November 1789 as a regular annual day for giving thanks, “unless another day be appointed by the civil authorities,” according to the classic World Book Encyclopedia. Later, the Roman Catholic Church formally recognized Thanksgiving Day in 1888.

President James Madison, in response to resolutions of Congress, established a day of thanksgiving at the close of the War of 1812.

A day of thanksgiving was annually appointed by the governor of New York from 1817.

In the several states of the south, there was fierce opposition to establishing a day for giving thanks, because it was then-believed to be propaganda of Puritanic bigotry.

Mrs. Sarah Josepha Buell Hale, “Mother of Thanksgiving

One woman, Mrs. Sarah Josepha Buell Hale (born in Newport, New Hampshire on October 24, 1788, and died on April 30, 1879), was the editor of her journal Godey’s Lady’s Book (1844).

Photo Credit: Journal Cover of “Godey’s Lady’s Book,” No. 738, Volume CXXIII, December 1891.

She led a twenty year campaign in her journal and actually wrote letters to each of the serving Presidents inside the White House during these twenty years to urge them to officially issue a federal proclamation for a day of giving thanks in the United States.

“Mrs. Hale’s advocacy for the national holiday began in 1846 and lasted 17 years before it was successful,” according to Wikipedia. “In support of the proposed national holiday, Hale wrote letters to five Presidents of the United StatesZachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, and Abraham Lincoln.”

Be that as it may, by 1858, Mrs. Hale efforts began to bear fruit, as governors of 25 states and two territories each eventually proclaimed annually an official day of thanksgiving.

Her initial letters failed to persuade, but her September 28, 1863 letter she wrote in Philadelphia to Lincoln convinced him to support legislation establishing a national holiday of Thanksgiving in 1863.

The following is an excerpt of Mrs. Hale’s Letter (pictured above) to President Lincoln:

“Private, Philadelphia, September 28, 1863

Honorable Abraham Lincoln – President of the United States

Sir,

Permit me, as editress of “Lady’s Book,” to request a few minutes of your precious time, while laying before you a subject of deep interest to myself and as I trust even to the President of our Republic of some importance. The subject is to have a day of our autumn – a Thanksgiving – made a national and fixed Union Festival.

You may have observed that for some years past, there has been an increasing interest felt in our land to have the Thanksgiving held on the same day in all the States. It now needs National recognition and authoritative fixation, only to become permanently an American custom and institution.

Enclosed are three proposals being printed, these are easily read, which make the idea and its program clear, and show also the popularity of the plan.

For the last fifteen years, I have set forth this idea in the “Lady’s Book” and placed the proposals before the Governors of all the States and Territories. Also, I have sent these [proposals] to our Ministers abroad … and commanders in the Army. From the recipients I have received uniformly the most kind approvals …”

Photo Credit: President Abraham Lincoln signing the first Thanksgiving Proclamation, November 1863, see President Lincoln’s 1863 clemency.

Finally, Mrs. Hale’s official Thanksgiving Holiday campaign saw daylight during the Civil War of the States, “in 1863, a year filled with pivotal historical events – the Emancipation Proclamation, the Union Army victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, and the Gettysburg Address – President Abraham Lincoln issued what has become known as the first Thanksgiving Proclamation.”

Photo Credit: President Abraham Lincoln (left) signatory of the Thanksgiving Day Proclamation of 1863; Mrs. Sarah Josepha Buell Hale (right), “Mother of Thanksgiving”

President Abraham Lincoln 151 years ago established the fourth Thursday of November 1864 and annually thereafter for an observance of Thanksgiving Day by federal proclamation of the president and of the governors of the several states of the union.

Upon President Lincoln’s proclamation, it was thus Mrs. Sarah Josepha Buell Hale who is now known as our “Mother of Thanksgiving.”

Photo Credit: An annual presidential tradition in observance of the Thanksgiving Day Holiday Season, President Lyndon Baines Johnson pardons “Tom Turkey” presented by then-Senator Everett Dirksen at The White House on November 16, 1967.

On the Annual Tradition of Presidential Pardoning of “Tom Turkey”

Since then, every president has held to President Lincoln’s tradition of proclaiming this day of giving thanks for the blessing bestowed upon of our nation. The Presidents annually make a formal announcement, and the governors of the several states issue proclamations recognizing the legislative act, calling on the people to give thanks.

“It is often stated that President Lincoln’s 1863 clemency to a turkey recorded in an 1865 dispatch by White House reporter Noah Brooks was the origin for the pardoning ceremony.” By annually pardoning “Tom Turkey” during an official White House event, since December 1948, “President Harry S. Truman accepted two turkeys and remarked that they would “come in handy” for Christmas dinner. There was clearly no plan for these birds to receive a presidential pardon, [because the chosen birds ended up served on the table at the official Thanks­giving Day Feast at The White House].

The Washington Post used both “pardon” and “reprieve” in a 1963 article in which President John F. Kennedy said [on November 19, 1963 during his final pardoning ceremony below just a few days before his assassination] of the turkey, “Let’s keep him going,” according to The White House Historical Association

Afterwards, President Kennedy requested the turkey he “pardoned” and “reprieved” returned back to the farm to live out the rest of the bird’s life.

“It wasn’t un­til 1987 that Pres­id­ent Ronald Re­agan in­tro­duced the idea of “par­don­ing” a bird for the first time. Pres­id­ent George H. W. Bush would ce­ment the tra­di­tion in 1989, and every year since then, tur­keys presen­ted to the pres­id­ent have been al­lowed to live out their nat­ur­al lives,” according to the National Journal, which displays official photos of each presidential pardon of “Tom Turkey” from Truman to Obama.

Happy Thanksgiving to you and your family!

“For all that God in mercy sends, For health and strength, For home and friends, For comfort in the time of need, For every kindly word and deed, For happy thoughts and pleasant talk, For guidance in our daily walk, For all these things,

Give Thanks.

“For beauty in this world of ours, For verdant grass and lovely flowers, For song of birds, For hum of bees, For the refreshing summer breeze, For hill and plain, For streams and wood, For the great ocean’s mighty flood, For all these things,

Give Thanks.

“For the sweet sleep that comes with night, For the returning morning’s light, For the bright sun which shines on high, For stars that glitter in the sky, For these and everything we see,

“O’ Lord, our hearts we lift to thee.

“And Give Thee Hearty Thanks.”

– Ellen Isabella Tupper (1930)

And Please Stay Safe in Your Travels!

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APPENDIX

Thanksgiving Holiday Travel 2015 By The Numbers [cf. AAA Travel Forecast]

According to AAA, 46.9 million travelers will primarily take to the highways (with 89.3 percent traveling 50 miles or more), or secondarily to the air (with 7.7 percent traveling via commercial domestic airlines) to be with their friends and loved ones for Thanksgivings 2015.

This 46.9 million total travelers in 2015 amounts to a 300,000 increase over the 46.6 million travelers observed for Thanksgiving 2014.

Since the slightly higher 47.6 million travelers seen in 2006, the annual fall holiday travel peaked at 50.6 million people in Thanksgiving 2007, before a huge drop to 37.8 million people traveling for Thanksgiving 2008 and 37.9 million people transporting for Thanksgiving 2009.

These sudden drops in Thanksgiving holiday travel was a result of the deep economic crunch on consumers from the Wall Street financial crisis and recession of 2007-2009. The slow economic recovery back from this rough economic period for Thanksgiving 2015 is clearly shown by consumers having more disposable cash-on-hand for taking to the highways and airways for Thanksgivings 2010 (at 40.9 million travelers), 2011 (at 43.3 million travelers), 2012 (at 44 million travelers), and 2013 (at 44.4 million travelers).

Thanksgiving Stats

Sources: F. B. Hough, Proclamations of Thanksgiving (Albany 1958); W.D. Love, The Past and Thanksgiving Days of New England (Boston 1895); May Lowe, “Thanksgiving Day” in New England Magazine (November 1904); C.L. Norton, “Thanksgiving Day – Past and Present” in the Magazine of American History (December 1885); R.M. Schauffler (ed.), Thanksgiving (New York 1907).

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