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Dec 032018
 

35 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Since 1852, only 36 Americans, including 4 Unknown Soldiers, 4 private citizens, 12 U.S. Presidents, and 13 U.S. Senators, including now the 41st President of the United States George Herbert Walker Bush, and previously in 2018 @SenJohnMcCain, have lain in state or repose or honor at the U.S. Capitol Rotunda, according to the Architect of the Capitol (listed below in reverse chronological order), via Newsweek.

William Howard Taft and Robert Taft, both of Cincinnati, Ohio, are the only father-and-son pair to have been so honored.

 

36. George Herbert Walker Bush

December 3-5, 2018

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President GHW Bush Lain in State - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

(via, VOA News) The flag-draped casket of former President George H.W. Bush lays inside the Rotunda of the Capitol in Washington, Dec. 3, 2018.

“Former U.S. President George H.W. Bush will lie in state in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda starting Monday evening as Americans honor the life of the country’s 41st president.

The Capitol will be open for dignitaries and the public to pay their respects through early Wednesday, with visitors allowed to walk past Bush’s casket. He died in Texas, his home state, late Friday at the age of 94 after several years of failing health.

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U.S. Vice President George H. W. Bush, right, and his wife Barbara Bush pose in front of the Taj Mahal, the 17th century monument to love was built by a Mughal Emperor Sahajahan in memory of his beloved queen who bore 14 children, Saturday, May 13, 1984, Agra, India. (AP Photo/Sondeep Shankar)

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HOUSTON, TX – APRIL 20, 2018: In this handout provided by the Office of George H.W. Bush, former President George H. W. Bush looks at the casket with his daughter Dorothy “Doro” Bush Koch as they wait for the mourners during the visitation of former first lady Barbara Bush at St. Martin’s Episcopal Church Friday, April 20, 2018, in Houston, Texas. Barbara Bush died on April 17, at the age of 92. (Photo by Mark Burns – Pool/Office of George H.W. Bush via Getty Images)

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A military honor guard carries the casket of former U.S. President George H.W. Bush at Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, U.S., December 3, 2018. REUTERS/Yuri Gripas – RC192D96E180

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“The flag-draped casket of former President George H.W. Bush is carried by a joint services military honor guard into St. Martin’s Episcopal Church Thursday, Dec. 6, 2018, in Houston.” (Photo Credit: Jack Gruber, USA TODAY)

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35. John S. McCain

August 26-27, 2018, and on August 31, 2018

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“My fellow Americans, whom I’ve gratefully served for 60 years, and especially my fellow Arizonans, thank you for the privilege of serving you and for the rewarding life that service in uniform and in public office has allowed me to lead.”

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

America is “the world’s greatest republic, a nation of ideals, not blood and soil.”

“I‘ve tried to serve our country honorably. I’ve made mistakes, but I hope my love for America will be weighed favorably against them.”

“We all love our country, we will get through these challenging times. We will come through them stronger than before. We always do.”

“Do not despair of our present difficulties, but believe always in the promise and greatness of America,” McCain wrote before his death Saturday. Share these last words of @SenJohnMcCain as he died Saturday, August 25, 2018.

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

@SenJohnMcCain, 81, is buried Sunday, September 2, 2018, @USNavy @NavalAcademy in Annapolis, Maryland, after he lies in state at the Arizona Capitol in Phoenix on Wednesday, August 29, 2018, and the U.S. Capitol Rotunda on Sunday-Monday, August 26-27, and on Friday, August 31, 2018, before his final funeral service Saturday, September 1, 2018 at the National Cathedral in Washington, DC.

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Chief of Staff John Kelly, Defense Secretary James Mattis, and National Security Advisor John Bolton along with Jared Kushner and Ivanka Trump will represent the @WhiteHouse at McCain’s National Cathedral funeral service in Washington, DC.

@OliverMcGee on AZ Senator #JohnMcCain #FoxNews Tribute
@OliverMcGee on @SenJohnMcCain's @FoxNews Tribute
 @FoxNews @FoxandFriends

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

(National Cathedral Funeral Procession of Senator John McCain on Saturday, September 1, 2018)

As reported in the Washington Post, ““I’ve made more mistakes than most anybody you will ever know,” McCain said in the interview, conducted for the 2017 Naval History Conference. “But one thing has guided me, is what I learned the first day I walked through the main gate at the Naval Academy. And that was do the right thing, and do it honorably, and you can never go wrong.”

It is Annapolis that McCain has returned to, again and again, in life and in death.

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

McCain’s father and grandfather are buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

But Admiral Charles “Chuck” Larson, a longtime friend and classmate, is buried at the academy in Maryland.”

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

(Pallbearers carried Mr. McCain’s coffin into the Arizona State Capitol on Wednesday. Credit Caitlin O’Hara for The New York Times)

“Larson reserved four plots before he died in 2014 — two for himself and McCain, and their wives. 

McCain’s plot is near where the two men first met, “back where it began,” he wrote in his recent book “The Restless Wave,” when he revealed Annapolis will be his final resting place.

“I will go to my grave in gratitude to my Creator for allowing me to stand witness to such courage and honor. And so will you,” McCain said. “My time is slipping by. Yours is fast approaching. You will know where your duty lies.”” 

(Below is McCain’s 1958 Class Photo at The Naval Academy in Annapolis).

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

 

34. Billy Graham

February 28–March 1, 2018; One of only 4 private American citizens to Lay in Honor

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Minister, evangelist and adviser to presidents. Died February 21, 2018, in Montreat, North Carolina. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Authority for use of the Rotunda granted by House Concurrent Resolution 107, 115th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to February 26, 2018.”

According to TIME, “the practice of U.S. elected officials and military leaders lying in state at the Capitol began with Senator Henry Clay in 1852, and since then more than two dozen people — including 11 Presidents — have received that posthumous send-off in the Rotunda. Many of those services, including those for Supreme Court Justices Thurgood Marshall and Warren Burger, have used the same wooden framework constructed to prop up Abraham Lincoln’s coffin in 1865. But Graham is only the fourth private citizen to “lie in honor,” rather than “lie in state,” in recognition of his contributions to the nation.”

 

33. Daniel K. Inouye

December 20, 2012

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Senator Inouye was the first congressman to represent Hawaii when it became a state in 1959. He served in the U.S. Senate from 1963 until his death, on December 17, 2012. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Inouye was the second-longest-serving senator in history and served as president pro tempore of the U.S. Senate. He was a World War II hero and given a Medal of Honor for his service.”

 

32. Gerald R. Ford Jr.

December 30, 2006–January 2, 2007

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Ford was a member of the House of Representatives from Michigan, January 3, 1949 to December 6, 1973, when he resigned to become vice president. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

He was vice president of the United States from December 6, 1973 to August 9, 1974, when President Richard M. Nixon resigned. Ford served as president of the United States from August 9, 1974 to January 20, 1977. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

President Gerald R. Ford Jr. died December 26, 2006, in Rancho Mirage, California, after adjournment of the 109th Congress, 2nd session. Authority for use of the Capitol Rotunda was granted by the speaker of the House of Representatives and the majority leader of the Senate. No resolution.”

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

 

31. Rosa Parks

October 30 and 31, 2005; One of only 4 private American citizens to Lay in Honor.

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Civil rights pioneer Rosa Parks died October 24, 2005, in Detroit. Authority for use of the Rotunda granted by Senate Concurrent Resolution 61, 109th Congress, 1st Session; agreed to October 29, 2005.”

 

30. Ronald Wilson Reagan

June 9–11, 2004.

“Reagan was governor of California from 1967 to 1975 and president of the United States from January 20, 1981 to January 20, 1989. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

He died June 5, 2004, in Bel-Air, California. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by Senate Concurrent Resolution 115, 108th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to June 9, 2004.”

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

 

29. Jacob Joseph Chestnut

28. John Michael Gibson

July 28, 1998; Two of Only 4 private American citizens to Lay in Honor

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Chestnut and Gibson were United States Capitol police officers killed at the U.S. Capitol in the line of duty on July 24, 1998. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 310, 105th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to July 27, 1998. Officer Chestnut and Detective Gibson were the first whose remains lay in honor in the Rotunda.”

 

27. Claude Denson Pepper

June 1 and 2, 1989

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Pepper served as U.S. Senator from Florida November 4, 1936 to January 3, 1951. He was a member of the House of Representatives from Florida from January 3, 1963, until his death, on May 30, 1989, in Washington, D.C. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 139, 101st Congress, 1st Session; agreed to May 31, 1989.”

 

26. Unknown Soldier of the Vietnam War

May 25–28, 1984

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Chosen to honor the unknown Americans who lost their lives while serving in the Armed Forces of the United States in Southeast Asia from 1959–1972. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 296, 98th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to May 17, 1984.”

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

 

25. Hubert H. Humphrey

January 14-15, 1978

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Humphrey served as U.S. senator from Minnesota from January 3, 1949 to December 29, 1964, when he resigned to become vice president. He was vice president of the United States from January 20, 1965 to January 20, 1969. Humphrey then returned to the Senate from November 3, 1970, until his death. He died January 14, 1978, in Waverly, Minnesota, after adjournment of the 95th Congress, 1st Session. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by the speaker of the House of Representatives and the majority leader of the Senate. No resolution.” 

 

24. Lyndon Baines Johnson

January 24 and 25, 1973

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Johnson was a member of the House of Representatives from Texas from April 10, 1937 to January 3, 1949. He was a U.S. Senator from Texas from January 3, 1949 to January 3, 1961, when he resigned, having been elected vice president of the United States. Johnson served as vice president from January 20, 1961, to November 22, 1963, when he assumed the presidency. He served as president until January 20, 1969. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Johnson died on January 22, 1973, near Johnson City, Texas. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 90, 93rd Congress, 1st Session; agreed to January 23, 1973.”

 

23. J. Edgar Hoover

May 3 and 4, 1972

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Hoover was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, serving from 1924 until his death. He died on May 2, 1972, in Washington, D.C. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

According to the New York Times, “Acting Attorney General Rich ard G. Kleindienst announced the death at 11 A.M., after F.B.I. offices around the world had been given the news and reports of it began to circulate here. Congress promptly voted its permission for his body to lie in state in the Capitol Ro tunda—an honor accorded to only 21 persons before, (23 persons before, when we now include below, 17. Unknown Soldier of World War II, and 16. Unknown Soldier of the Korean War, May 28–30, 1958) of whom eight were Presidents or former Presidents.”

Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 600, 92nd Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to May 2, 1972.”

 

22. Everett McKinley Dirksen

September 9 and 10, 1969

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Dirksen was a member of the House of Representatives from Illinois from March 4, 1933 to January 3, 1949. He was a U.S. senator from Illinois, January 3, 1951, until his death, September 7, 1969, in Washington, D.C. (He suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest and died, at age 73. Dirksen was buried at Glendale Memorial Gardens in Pekin). Senate Resolution 254, 91st Congress, 1st Session, agreed to September 8, 1969; extended invitations to memorial service in the Rotunda, September 9, 1969.” 

(President Richard Nixon paid his last respects and tributes to Sen. Dirksen in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda below in 1969. In 1972, one of the Senate’s buildings was renamed the Dirksen Senate Office Building in his honor.)

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

 

21. Dwight D. Eisenhower

March 30 and 31, 1969

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Eisenhower graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1915, was promoted to general of the army in 1944, and was named president of Columbia University in 1948. He served as president of the United States from January 20, 1953, to January 20, 1961. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Eisenhower died March 28, 1969, in Washington, D.C., during the 91st Congress, 1st Session. No resolution. (Richard Nixon pays tribute to IKE in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda above in 1969).

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

 

20. Herbert Clark Hoover

October 23–25, 1964

“Hoover served as secretary of commerce for presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. He was food administrator under President Woodrow Wilson. Hoover also served as chairman of the Ccommission on the organization of executive branch of government  from 1947 to 1949 and from 1953 to 1955. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

He was president of the United States from March 4, 1929, to March 3, 1933. Hoover died October 20, 1964, in New York City, after adjournment of the 88th Congress, 2nd Session. No resolution.”

 

19. Douglas MacArthur

April 8 and 9, 1964

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“MacArthur was superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point from 1919–1922; appointed chief of staff of the Army on November 21, 1930; and appointed general of the Army on December 18, 1944. From July 26, 1941, through April 11, 1951, he served in the Pacific and Far East in various allied commands. MacArthur died April 5, 1964, in Washington, D.C. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by Senate Concurrent Resolution 74, 88th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to April 6, 1964.”

 

18. John F. Kennedy

November 24 and 25, 1963

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Kennedy was a member of the House of Representatives from Massachusetts, January 3, 1947 to January 3, 1953. U.S. Senator from Massachusetts January 3, 1953, to December 22, 1960, when he resigned to become president. 

Was president of the United States from January 20, 1961, until his death. Assassinated in Dallas on November 22, 1963, during the 88th Congress, 1st Session. No resolution.” 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

 

17. Unknown Soldier of World War II 

16. Unknown Soldier of the Korean War

May 28–30, 1958

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Chosen to honor and perpetuate the memory of the heroes who gave their lives while serving overseas in the Armed Forces of the United States during World War II and the Korean War, and whose identities were unknown. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 242, 85th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to March 6, 1958.”

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

 

15. Robert A. Taft

August 2 and 3, 1953

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Taft served as U.S. Senator from Ohio from January 3, 1939, until his death. He died July 31, 1953, in New York City, during 83rd Congress, 1st Session, Senate Resolution 158, 83rd Congress, 1st Session; agreed to August 1, 1953, extended invitation to the memorial service in the Rotunda August 3, 1953.”

“In 1957, a committee led by Senator John F. Kennedy selected Taft as one of five of the greatest Senators, whose portraits would adorn the President’s Room off the Senate floor. Taft continues to be regarded by historians as one of the most powerful U.S. Senators of the twentieth century.

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Robert Alphonso Taft was born on September 8, 1889. He was the oldest child of U.S. President William Howard Taft and his wife Helen Louise “Nellie” Herron and the grandson of Attorney General and Secretary of War Alphonso Taft. As a child he spent four years in the Philippines, where his father was governor. As an adolescent he was a brilliant academic. He finished first in his class at the Taft School in Cincinnati (run by his uncle), at Yale College and at Harvard Law School, graduating in 1913. He edited the Harvard Law Review. Following his graduation, Taft scored the highest mark in the state on the Ohio bar exam in 1913. He practiced law for four years with the firm of Maxwell and Ramsey (now Graydon Head & Ritchey LLP) in Cincinnati. He then worked in Washington for the Food and Drug Administration, before returning to Cincinnati to start his own law office. In 1924, he and his brother Charles helped form the law partnership Taft, Stettinius, and Hollister, with whom he continued to be associated until his death. The firm continues to carry his name today.

He was strongly criticized both by Republicans and Democrats for this. Senator John F. Kennedy in his bestselling book “Profiles in Courage,” applauded Taft’s principled stand even in the face of great bipartisan criticism.

When the Republicans took control of Congress in 1947, Taft became Chair of the Senate Labor Committee. He wrote the 1947 Taft–Hartley Act, which remains the basic labor law today. It banned “unfair” union practices, outlaws closed shops, and authorized the President to seek federal court injunctions to impose an eighty-day cooling-off period if a strike threatened the national interest. When President Harry Truman vetoed it, Taft convinced both houses of Congress to override the veto.

Taft was non-interventionist who did not see Stalin’s Soviet Union as a major threat. He saw the real dangers as big government and runaway spending. He opposed NATO and he took the lead among Republicans in condemning President Harry Truman’s handling of the Korean War. Taft questioned the constitutionality of the war itself. He said:

“In the case of Korea, where a war was already under way, we had no right to send troops to a nation, with whom we had no treaty, to defend it against attack by another nation, no matter how unprincipled that aggression might be, unless the whole matter was submitted to Congress and a declaration of war or some other direct authority obtained.” “


14. John Joseph Pershing

July 18 and 19, 1948

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Pershing was general of the Armies of the United States. He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1886 and devoted his entire life to military service. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

He served as chief of staff of the Army 1921–1924; commander of American expeditionary forces, World War I; distinguished service during the Philippine insurrection and Spanish-American War. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Pershing died July 15, 1948, in Washington, D.C., during recess of the 80th Congress, 2nd Session. No resolution.”

 

13. William Howard Taft

March 11, 1930

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Taft served as president of United States from March 4, 1909, to March 4, 1913. He was chief justice of the United States Supreme Court from July 11, 1921, to February 3, 1930. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Taft died on March 8, 1930, in Washington, D.C., during 71st Congress, 2nd Session. No resolution.”

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

The Tafts had four sons: William Howard Taft III (1915–1991), a future Ambassador to Ireland; Robert Alphonso Taft, Jr. (1917–1993), a future U.S. Senator (shown on the right above next to U.S. President and U.S. Chief Justice William Howard Taft); Lloyd Bowers Taft (1923–1985), an investment banker in Cincinnati, and Horace Dwight Taft (1925–1983), a professor of physics and dean at Yale. Two of Robert Taft’s grandsons are Robert Alphonso “Bob” Taft III (born 1942), Governor of Ohio from 1999 to 2007, and William Howard Taft IV (born 1945), Deputy Secretary of Defense from 1984 to 1989.

 

12. Warren G. Harding

August 8, 1923

“Harding served as U.S. senator from Ohio, March 4, 1915, to January 13, 1921, when he resigned, having been elected president. He was president of United States from March 4, 1921, until his death. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Harding died August 2, 1923, in San Francisco, after adjournment of the 67th Congress, 4th Session. No resolution.”

 

11. Unknown Soldier of World War I

November 9–11, 1921

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

(General John Joseph Pershing stands and salutes in front to the casket of the Unknown Soldier of World War I in 1921 inside the U.S. Capitol Rotunda)

“Chosen to honor and perpetuate the memory of the heroes who gave their lives in World War I, the body was that of an unknown American who served as a member of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe. Congress was in session, 67th Congress, 1st Session. No resolution.”

 

10. George Dewey

January 20, 1917

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Dewey was admiral of the Navy and was a hero of Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War. He died January 16, 1917, in Washington, D.C. Authority for use of the Rotunda was granted by House Concurrent Resolution 68, 64th Congress, 2nd Session; agreed to January 18, 1917.”

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

George Dewey (December 26, 1837 – January 16, 1917) was an admiral of the United States Navy. “He is best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. He is also the only person in the history of the United States to have (first) attained the rank of Admiral of the Navy, the most senior rank in the United States Navy.”

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“By act of Congress he was promoted to the special rank of Admiral of the Navy in 1903 with his date of rank retroactive to 1899. A special military decoration, the Battle of Manila Bay Medal (commonly called the Dewey Medal), was struck in honor of Dewey’s victory at Manila Bay. It was awarded to every American officer, Sailor and Marine present at the battle. The medals were designed by Daniel Chester French, sculptor of the Lincoln Memorial, and produced by Tiffany & Co. Each medal was engraved with the recipient’s name, rank and ship. Since his own image appeared on the obverse of the medal, out of modesty, Dewey wore his medal reversed. Dewey was one of only four Americans in history (the other three being Admiral William T. Sampson, Admiral Richard E. Byrd and General John J. Pershing) who were entitled to wear a US Government issued medal with their own image on it.”

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

 

9. Pierre Charles L’Enfant

(Re-interment) April 28, 1909

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“L’Enfant was the planner of the city of Washington, D.C. He died June 14, 1825, and was buried on Digges Farm in Prince George’s County, Maryland. His remains were brought to the U.S. Capitol on April 28, 1909, to be reinterred at Arlington National Cemetery. Senate Concurrent Resolution 2, 61st Congress, 1st Session granted use of the Rotunda; agreed to March 26, 1909.”

 

8. William McKinley, Jr.

September 17, 1901

“McKinley was a member of House of Representatives from Ohio, March 4, 1877, to May 27, 1884, and again from March 4, 1885, to March 3, 1891. He served as governor of Ohio from 1892 to 1896 and as President of United States, March 4, 1897, until his death. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

McKinley was assassinated September 6, 1901, in Buffalo, New York, and died there September 14, 1901, after adjournment of the 56th Congress, 2nd Session. No resolution.”

 

7. John A. Logan

December 30-31, 1886

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Logan was a member of House of Representatives from Illinois, March 4, 1859, to April 2, 1862, when he resigned to enter the Union Army, and again from March 4, 1867, until March 3, 1871. He served as U.S. Senator from Illinois, March 4, 1871, to March 3, 1877, and again from March 4, 1879, to December 26, 1886. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“After the Civil war, Logan, who had always been a staunch partisan, was identified with the radical wing of the Republican Party. His forceful, passionate speaking, popular on the platform, was less effective in the halls of legislation. In 1868, he was one of the managers in the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson.”

(Below is a site of American Civil War by Illinoisans, including Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and John A. Logan).

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Around three o’clock in the afternoon on December 26, Logan died at his home in Columbia HeightsWashington, D.C. 

“Logan died on December 26, 1886, in Washington, D.C., during the 49th Congress, 2nd Session. No resolution.”

After his death, Logan’s body lay in state in the United States Capitol

An equestrian statue stands in Logan Circle in Washington, D.C., which gives its name to the surrounding neighborhood. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

John A. Logan’s funeral was at Hutchinson’s vault.

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Logan’s final resting place at the U.S. Soldiers’ and Airmen’s Home National Cemetery is a granite, Norman-style mausoleum, design by the former supervising architect of the U.S. Treasury Department, Alfred B. Mullett, which houses the remains of General John A. Logan; his wife, Mary S. Logan; daughter, Mary Logan Tucker; and grandsons, Captain Logan Tucker and George E. Tucker.”

 

6. James A. Garfield

September 21–23, 1881

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Garfield was a member of House of Representatives from Ohio from March 4, 1863, to November 8, 1880, when he resigned, having been elected president. He served as President of the United States from March 4, 1881, until his death. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Garfield was assassinated July 2, 1881, in Washington, D.C., and died September 19, 1881, in Elberon, New Jersey, after adjournment of 46th Congress, 3rd Session. No resolution.”

(White House draped in mourning for President James A. Garfield, September 1881).

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

 

5. Henry Wilson

November 25 and 26, 1875

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Wilson served as a U.S. Senator from Massachusetts from January 31, 1855, to March 3, 1873, when he resigned to become vice president of the United States. He was vice president from March 4, 1873, until his death, on November 22, 1875. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Wilson died in the vice president’s room in the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C., after adjournment of the 43rd Congress, 2nd Session. No resolution.”

 

4. Charles Sumner

March 13, 1874

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Sumner served as U.S. Senator from Massachusetts deom April 24, 1851, until his death, March 11, 1874. He died in Washington, D.C., during the 43rd Congress. No resolution.”

As reported in the Anchorage Daily News, by Steve Haycox, professor emeritus of history at the University of Alaska Anchorage, “When he died of a heart attack on March 11, 1874, 143 years ago this month (on March 23, 2017), Charles Sumner, the Massachusetts senator who had shepherded the Alaska Purchase Treaty through Senate ratification, lay in state in the Capitol rotunda, only the second senator to be so honored (the first being Henry Clay).

That was not because of his critical, but often overlooked, role in facilitating the Alaska purchase. It was rather a tribute to his long and fiery career as an uncompromising champion of abolition, and full civil and property rights for former slaves.”

 

3. Thaddeus Stevens

August 13–14, 1868

“Stevens was a member of the House of Representatives from Pennsylvania, March 4, 1849, to March 3, 1853, and again from March 4, 1859, until his death on August 11, 1868. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

He died in Washington, D.C., during recess of the 40th Congress, 2nd Session, and lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda. No resolution.”

 

2. Abraham Lincoln

April 19–21, 1865

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Lincoln was a member of the House of Representatives from Illinois, March 4, 1847, to March 3, 1849. He was president of the United States from March 4, 1861, until his death. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Lincoln was assassinated April 14, 1865, in Washington, D.C., and died there April 15, 1865, after adjournment of the 38th Congress, 2nd Session. 

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

The historic catafalque was constructed to support Lincoln’s casket during his lying in state. No resolution.”

 

1. Henry Clay

July 1, 1852

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

“Henry Clay was a member of the House of Representatives for five non-consecutive terms (1811–1825). He served as speaker of the House in 1811–1814, 1815–1820 and 1823–1825. He was secretary of state from 1825 to 1829. Clay also served as U.S. senator from Kentucky intermittently for 18 years between 1806 and 1852. He died June 29, 1852, in Washington, D.C., during the 32nd Congress, 1st Session, becoming the first person honored by a funeral ceremony in the Capitol Rotunda. No resolution.”

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__________

Appendix

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda
 
Lying in State 
 
“Lying in state occurs when the casket of a member of government (or former member of government) is placed on view in the principal government building of a country or state to allow the public to pay their respects.  

Examples of this would include President Gerald Ford or Senator Daniel Inouye lying in state in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda, or Congressman Paul Gillmor lying in state in the Ohio State Capitol.  

Lying in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol is authorized by Joint Resolution of Congress.

A guard of honor maintains a vigil over the remains throughout the period of time the remains lie in state. Public viewing is generally allowed during the lying in state.

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

Lying in Repose

Lying in repose occurs when the casket of a member of government (or former member of government) is placed on view in any other building to allow the public to pay their respects. 

Examples would include President Reagan at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California in 2004, President Gerald Ford at St. Margaret’s Episcopal Church in Palm Desert, California in 2006, and Senator John McCain at the Arizona Capitol in Phoenix, Arizona in 2018.

 
[via, Wikipedia]

Supreme Court Justices “lie in repose” in the Great Hall of the United States Supreme Court Building.

900 - 36 Americans Have Lain in State, Repose and Honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda

 
Lying in Honor
 
The term “lying in honor” encompasses two different scenarios:
    1.  When the casket of an individual who is not a member of government is placed on view in the principal government building of a country or state to allow the public to pay their respects.  An example would be Rosa Parks in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda.

    2.  When the casket of a member of government (or former member of government) is placed on view in the U.S. Capitol, but not in the Capitol Rotunda, to allow the public to pay their respects.  Examples include Senator Robert Byrd and Senator Frank Lautenberg lying in honor in the Senate Chamber.”

 
[via, Wikipedia]
 
“The United States Congress has created a similar—though not identical—privilege for distinguished Americans who do not qualify for a lying in state designation. In the process of “lying in honor,” the honor guard in the Rotunda is provided by the Capitol Police or another suitable source. 

In 1998, Chestnut and Gibson were killed while defending the Capitol against a shooter. Congress approved their remains to lie in honor in the Rotunda. Chestnut was the first African American to lie in honor. In 2005, upon the death of civil rights activist Rosa Parks, Congress authorized her remains to lie in honor at the Rotunda; Parks was the second African American and the first woman to lie in honor in the Capitol Rotunda. Graham was the first religious leader to be honored in this way.”

 
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Dec 192017
 

America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

A dignified constitutional convention mandates a new American president to put forth a national security strategy at some point early in a new administration. In an unprecedented move as early as the first year – well before his second State of the Union Address in January – President Donald Trump detailed a new “National Security Strategy of the United States of America” on Monday, December 18, 2017, outlining The Trump Doctrine of “America First,” including his administration’s defense against threats from “rogue regimes” like North Korea’s imperial nuclear threats on global security.

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“America is coming back and coming back strong,” President Trump said.

The speech touched on the U.S. relationship with China and Russia, who the president described as “rival powers” that “seek to challenge American influence, values, and wealth.” The Trump Doctrine also promised “firm action against unfair trade practices and intellectual property theft.”

PRESIDENT TRUMP PREDICTS ECONOMIC BOOM AS FINAL TAX BILL HEADS FOR HOUSE, SENATE, and the President’s Desk.

President Trump on Wednesday, December 20, 2017 predicted the already-humming U.S. economy is about to get a big boost, as the final version of the $1.5 trillion Republican tax bill heads to the floors of the House and the Senate, and ultimately to his desk for signature. “Stocks and the economy have a long way to go after the Tax Cut Bill is totally understood and appreciated in scope and size,” Trump tweeted. “Immediate expensing will have a big impact. Biggest Tax Cuts and Reform EVER passed. Enjoy, and create many beautiful JOBS!”

#USHouse in a 224-201 vote and #USSenate in a 51-48 vote passes the $1.5T #TaxCutsandJobsAct for President Trump’s signature on Friday, December 22, 2017 well before Christmas Day, as he promised! Here’s 3 Easy Pieces of the #TaxBill for #Jobs #Savings #Investments and #Growth:

☑️ Repeals #Obamacare Individual Mandate!

☑️ Cuts Corporate Taxes at 35% to 21%!

☑️ Reduces Tax Rates to 10-37% in just 7 Brackets! https://twitter.com/olivermcgee/status/942007584625778688

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

On this day as U.S. markets sees the Dow rise a record 5,000 points in a year, rapidly approaching a record high of 25,000 points, and as the emerging decentralized network ledger digital currency Bitcoin stretches over its 20,000 market value threshold,

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

“A Growing Nation with a Crumbling Infrastructure is a Slowing Nation!”

Today is about Speed!

The Speed of our Transportation Technologies! 

The Speed of our National Security Response! 

The Speed of our High-Growth Economy!

Transportation Security is Economic Security which is National Security!

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

Atlanta Airport Blackout closely followed by the Washington State Train Derailment is a classic case study of moving people, planes, trains and automobiles all at once during a high-tech disaster placed upon our national security strategy integrated with our national infrastructure system.

Look Up America, our infrastructure science and technology is integrated into these 7 Grand-Challenges: Info-Tech, Bio-Tech, Wireless-Tech, Micro-Tech, Nano-Tech, Cogno-Tech, and Elder-Tech – moving people, ideas and things!

Altogether, we must salute the Trump Administration’s FAA, FRA, FHWA, and USDOT and it’s local agencies in not only getting America back up in the air in Atlanta, but also moving forward again on the ground on Amtrak and Interstate 5 in Washington State, as local police, fire, hospitals, government and investigation officials, including the National Transportation Safety Board, move into place to determine exactly what happened.

The challenge of revitalizing and updating America’s transportation and infrastructure will be a focus of President Trump’s upcoming State of the Union Address.

President Trump has promised a $1T 10-year, revenue-neutral investment in the nation’s crumbling infrastructure.

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

Following the upcoming Tax Bill vote this week with 21% corporate tax rates, with 15.5% cash repatriation rates, and that will accelerate an already speedy economy, a proposed $1T Infrastructure Bill would encourage private sector investment in partnership with the public sector to repair, rehabilitate, and rebuild major, high-cost, revenue-supported Infrastructure Projects on highways, historic bridges, tunnels, airports, airplanes, schools, hospitals and our inner cities.

We need to rebuild our “Fast Transportation Infrastructure Technology” to keep up with our now “Fast Growing Economy,” so we can put our “Fast Capital” to work and create JOBS, JOBS, JOBS, especially to unite rural and urban regions across this country.

Build America Bonds” is President Trump’s 82% Tax Credits in equity private investments in infrastructure development and jobs creation.

Remarkably, the American Society of Civil Engineers gives America’s Crumbling Infrastructure a D+ Grade! This puts the state of our homeland and national security in deep jeopardy akin to a ”banana republic” operating with a world-class economy!

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

President Trump is now rapidly turning his “Make America’s Infrastructure Great Again” vision into federal policy and legislation with the help of the Republican-controlled Congress, particularly through its “Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act” – providing authorization through FY 2020; The U.S. Senate’s FAA Reauthorization Act (S. 2658); and The U.S. House’s ”Aviation Innovation, Reform, and Reauthorization Act” (H.R. 4441) – providing comprehensive reforms to the Air Traffic Control System, and even provisions for enhanced airport security and airport modernization; and ”Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER)” discretionary grant program – providing operations of public transportation and passenger rail agencies to continue their transportation safety and security improvements!

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

#Amtrak501, derailed Monday, December 18, 2017 in its inaugural ride on a new rail near Seattle, Washington, was traveling at 80mph in a 30mph zone, says #NTSB citing train data recorder! .@OliverMcGee, civil engineer, tells #FoxNews positive train control can prevent train derailments! Watch #FoxNews Video here: https://twitter.com/olivermcgee/status/943136789820334082

Most of all, President Trump’s White House “America First” National Security Doctrine is 4-fold connected to his proposed National Transportation and Infrastructure Strategy:

☑️ Protects Our Homeland & Way of Life!

☑️ Promotes American Prosperity!

☑️ Demonstrates Peace Through Strength!

☑️ Advances American Influence in an Ever-Competitive World!

GDP Growth NOW Ranks 5th!

LBJ (‘64-68) 5.3%

JFK (‘61-63) 4.3%

Clinton (‘93-00) 3.9%

Reagan (‘81-88) 3.5%

Carter (‘77-80) 3.3%

IKE (‘53-60) 3.0%

Nixon (‘69-74) 2.8%

Ford (‘75-76) 2.6%

Bush1 (‘89-92) 2.3%

Bush2 (‘01-08) 2.1%

Truman (‘46-52) 1.7%

Obama (‘09-16) 1.5%

Trump 2017 3.3%!

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

A Growing Nation with a Crumbling Infrastructure is a Slowing Nation!

President Trump’s Administration and the White House is shifting America from a “Hard Power, Soft Power” international politics of efficiency to a “Values-to-Storytelling” international sovereignty of dignity and wealth at home and abroad with Infrastructure, Science & Technology Policy tied to our Economic Policy of Growth & Global Trade! It’s all about Democracy (Liberty), Markets (Efficiency), Communications (Communities) & Technology (Equality)! https://twitter.com/olivermcgee/status/941118491217793024

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

A video of President Trump’s full speech can be seen here. Below is a full White House transcript of the President’s remarks as delivered.

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

__________

“Thank you very much. Thank you. Please. I want to thank Vice President Pence, along with the many members of my Cabinet here with us today.

I also want to thank all of the dedicated professionals — military, civilian, and law enforcement — who devote their lives to serving our nation. In particular, I want to recognize General Dunford and the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Thank you, thank you, thank you. (Applause.)

In addition, we are honored to be joined by House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy, Homeland Security Chairman Mike McCaul, and Senate Majority Whip John Cornyn. Thank you very much. Thank you for being here. Thank you. Thank you. (Applause.)

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

Let me begin by expressing our deepest sympathies and most heartfelt prayers for the victims of the train derailment in Washington State. We are closely monitoring the situation and coordinating with local authorities. It is all the more reason why we must start immediately fixing the infrastructure of the United States.

We’re here today to discuss matters of vital importance to us all: America’s security, prosperity, and standing in the world. I want to talk about where we’ve been, where we are now, and, finally, our strategy for where we are going in the years ahead.

But to seize the opportunities of the future, we must first understand the failures of the past.

Over the past 11 months, I have traveled tens of thousands of miles to visit 13 countries. I have met with more than 100 world leaders. I have carried America’s message to a grand hall in Saudi Arabia, a great square in Warsaw, to the General Assembly of the United Nations, and to the seat of democracy on the Korean Peninsula. Everywhere I traveled, it was my highest privilege and greatest honor to represent the American people.

Throughout our history, the American people have always been the true source of American greatness. Our people have promoted our culture and promoted our values. Americans have fought and sacrificed on the battlefields all over the world. We have liberated captive nations, transformed former enemies into the best of friends, and lifted entire regions of the planet from poverty to prosperity.

Because of our people, America has been among the greatest forces for peace and justice in the history of the world. The American people are generous. You are determined, you are brave, you are strong, and you are wise.

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

When the American people speak, all of us should listen. And just over one year ago, you spoke loud and you spoke clear. On November 8, 2016, you voted to make America great again. (Applause.) You embraced new leadership and very new strategies, and also a glorious new hope. That is why we are here today.

But to seize the opportunities of the future, we must first understand the failures of the past. For many years, our citizens watched as Washington politicians presided over one disappointment after another. To many of our leaders — so many who forgot whose voices they were to respect and whose interests they were supposed to defend — our leaders in Washington negotiated disastrous trade deals that brought massive profits to many foreign nations, but sent thousands of American factories, and millions of American jobs, to those other countries.

Our leaders engaged in nation-building abroad, while they failed to build up and replenish our nation at home. They undercut and shortchanged our men and women in uniform with inadequate resources, unstable funding, and unclear missions. They failed to insist that our often very wealthy allies pay their fair share for defense, putting a massive and unfair burden on the U.S. taxpayer and our great U.S. military.

They neglected a nuclear menace in North Korea; made a disastrous, weak, and incomprehensibly bad deal with Iran; and allowed terrorists such as ISIS to gain control of vast parts of territory all across the Middle East.

They put American energy under lock and key. They imposed punishing regulations and crippling taxes. They surrendered our sovereignty to foreign bureaucrats in faraway and distant capitals.

And over the profound objections of the American people, our politicians left our borders wide open. Millions of immigrants entered illegally. Millions more were admitted into our country without the proper vetting needed to protect our security and our economy. Leaders in Washington imposed on the country an immigration policy that Americans never voted for, never asked for, and never approved — a policy where the wrong people are allowed into our country and the right people are rejected. American citizens, as usual, have been left to bear the cost and to pick up the tab.

On top of everything else, our leaders drifted from American principles. They lost sight of America’s destiny. And they lost their belief in American greatness. As a result, our citizens lost something as well. The people lost confidence in their government and, eventually, even lost confidence in their future.

But last year, all of that began to change. The American people rejected the failures of the past. You rediscovered your voice and reclaimed ownership of this nation and its destiny.

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

On January 20th, 2017, I stood on the steps of the Capitol to herald the day the people became the rulers of their nation again. (Applause.) Thank you. Now, less than one year later, I am proud to report that the entire world has heard the news and has already seen the signs. America is coming back, and America is coming back strong.

This strategy recognizes that, whether we like it or not, we are engaged in a new era of competition.

Upon my inauguration, I announced that the United States would return to a simple principle: The first duty of our government is to serve its citizens, many of whom have been forgotten. But they are not forgotten anymore. With every decision and every action, we are now putting America first.

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

We are rebuilding our nation, our confidence, and our standing in the world. We have moved swiftly to confront our challenges, and we have confronted them head-on.

We are once again investing in our defense — almost $700 billion, a record, this coming year. We are demanding extraordinary strength, which will hopefully lead to long and extraordinary peace. We are giving our courageous military men and women the support they need and so dearly deserve.

We have withdrawn the United States from job-killing deals such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the very expensive and unfair Paris Climate Accord. And on our trip to Asia last month, I announced that we will no longer tolerate trading abuse.

We have established strict new vetting procedures to keep terrorists out of the United States, and our vetting is getting tougher each month.

To counter Iran and block its path to a nuclear weapon, I sanctioned the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps for its support of terrorism, and I declined to certify the Iran Deal to Congress.

Following my trip to the Middle East, the Gulf states and other Muslim-majority nations joined together to fight radical Islamist ideology and terrorist financing. We have dealt ISIS one devastating defeat after another. The coalition to defeat ISIS has now recaptured almost 100 percent of the land once held by these terrorists in Iraq and Syria. Great job. (Applause.) Great job. Really good. Thank you. Thank you. We have a great military. We’re now chasing them wherever they flee, and we will not let them into the United States.

In Afghanistan, our troops are no longer undermined by artificial timelines, and we no longer tell our enemies of our plans. We are beginning to see results on the battlefield. And we have made clear to Pakistan that while we desire continued partnership, we must see decisive action against terrorist groups operating on their territory. And we make massive payments every year to Pakistan. They have to help.

Our efforts to strengthen the NATO Alliance set the stage for significant increases in member contributions, with tens of billions of dollars more pouring in because I would not allow member states to be delinquent in the payment, while we guarantee their safety and are willing to fight wars for them. We have made clear that countries that are immensely wealthy should reimburse the United States for the cost of defending them. This is a major departure from the past, but a fair and necessary one — necessary for our country, necessary for our taxpayer, necessary for our own thought process.

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

A nation without borders is not a nation.

Our campaign of maximum pressure on the North Korean regime has resulted in the toughest-ever sanctions. We have united our allies in an unprecedented effort to isolate North Korea. However, there is much more work to do. America and its allies will take all necessary steps to achieve a denuclearization and ensure that this regime cannot threaten the world. (Applause.) Thank you. This situation should have been taken care of long before I got into office, when it was much easier to handle. But it will be taken care of. We have no choice.

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

At home, we are keeping our promises and liberating the American economy. We have created more than 2 million jobs since the election. Unemployment is at a 17-year-low. The stock market is at an all-time high and, just a little while ago, hit yet another all-time high — the 85th time since my election. (Applause.)

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

We have cut 22 regulations for every one new regulation, the most in the history of our country. We have unlocked America’s vast energy resources.

As the world watches — and the world is indeed watching — we are days away from passing historic tax cuts for American families and businesses. It will be the biggest tax cut and tax reform in the history of our country. (Applause.) Thank you. Thank you. Thank you.

And we are seeing the response we fully expected. Economic growth has topped 3 percent for two quarters in a row. GDP growth, which is way ahead of schedule under my administration, will be one of America’s truly greatest weapons.

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Optimism has surged. Confidence has returned. With this new confidence, we are also bringing back clarity to our thinking. We are reasserting these fundamental truths:

A nation without borders is not a nation. (Applause.)

A nation that does not protect prosperity at home cannot protect its interests abroad.

A nation that is not prepared to win a war is a nation not capable of preventing a war.

A nation that is not proud of its history cannot be confident in its future.

And a nation that is not certain of its values cannot summon the will to defend them.

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

Today, grounded in these truths, we are presenting to the world our new National Security Strategy. Based on my direction, this document has been in development for over a year. It has the endorsement of my entire Cabinet.

Our new strategy is based on a principled realism, guided by our vital national interests, and rooted in our timeless values.

This strategy recognizes that, whether we like it or not, we are engaged in a new era of competition. We accept that vigorous military, economic, and political contests are now playing out all around the world.

We face rogue regimes that threaten the United States and our allies. We face terrorist organizations, transnational criminal networks, and others who spread violence and evil around the globe.

We also face rival powers, Russia and China, that seek to challenge American influence, values, and wealth.

We also face rival powers, Russia and China, that seek to challenge American influence, values, and wealth. We will attempt to build a great partnership with those and other countries, but in a manner that always protects our national interest.

As an example, yesterday I received a call from President Putin of Russia thanking our country for the intelligence that our CIA was able to provide them concerning a major terrorist attack planned in St. Petersburg, where many people, perhaps in the thousands, could have been killed. They were able to apprehend these terrorists before the event, with no loss of life. And that’s a great thing, and the way it’s supposed to work. That is the way it’s supposed to work.

But while we seek such opportunities of cooperation, we will stand up for ourselves, and we will stand up for our country like we have never stood up before. (Applause.) Thank you. Thank you. Thank you.

We know that American success is not a forgone conclusion. It must be earned and it must be won. Our rivals are tough, they’re tenacious, and committed to the long term. But so are we.

To succeed, we must integrate every dimension of our national strength, and we must compete with every instrument of our national power.

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

Under the Trump administration, America is gaining wealth, leading to enhanced power — faster than anyone thought — with $6 trillion more in the stock market alone since the election — $6 trillion.

With the strategy I am announcing today, we are declaring that America is in the game and America is going to win. (Applause.) Thank you.

Our strategy advances four vital national interests. 

First, we must protect the American people, the homeland, and our great American way of life. This strategy recognizes that we cannot secure our nation if we do not secure our borders. So for the first time ever, American strategy now includes a serious plan to defend our homeland. It calls for the construction of a wall on our southern border; ending chain migration and the horrible visa and lottery programs; closing loopholes that undermine enforcement; and strongly supporting our Border Patrol agents, ICE officers, and Homeland Security personnel. (Applause.)

In addition, our strategy calls for us to confront, discredit, and defeat radical Islamic terrorism and ideology and to prevent it from spreading into the United States. And we will develop new ways to counter those who use new domains, such as cyber and social media, to attack our nation or threaten our society.

The second pillar of our strategy is to promote American prosperity. For the first time, American strategy recognizes that economic security is national security. Economic vitality, growth, and prosperity at home is absolutely necessary for American power and influence abroad. Any nation that trades away its prosperity for security will end up losing both.

That is why this National Security Strategy emphasizes, more than any before, the critical steps we must take to ensure the prosperity of our nation for a long, long time to come.

It calls for cutting taxes and rolling back unnecessary regulations. It calls for trade based on the principles of fairness and reciprocity. It calls for firm action against unfair trade practices and intellectual property theft. And it calls for new steps to protect our national security industrial and innovation base.

The strategy proposes a complete rebuilding of American infrastructure — our roads, bridges, airports, waterways, and communications infrastructure. And it embraces a future of American energy dominance and self-sufficiency.

The third pillar of our strategy is to preserve peace through strength. (Applause.) We recognize that weakness is the surest path to conflict, and unrivaled power is the most certain means of defense. For this reason, our strategy breaks from the damaging defense sequester. We’re going to get rid of that. (Applause.)

It calls for a total modernization of our military, and reversing previous decisions to shrink our armed forces — even as threats to national security grew. It calls for streamlining acquisition, eliminating bloated bureaucracy, and massively building up our military, which has the fundamental side benefit of creating millions and millions of jobs.

This strategy includes plans to counter modern threats, such as cyber and electromagnetic attacks. It recognizes space as a competitive domain and calls for multi-layered missile defense. (Applause.) This strategy outlines important steps to address new forms of conflict such as economic and political aggression.

And our strategy emphasizes strengthening alliances to cope with these threats. It recognizes that our strength is magnified by allies who share principles — and our principles — and shoulder their fair share of responsibility for our common security.

Fourth and finally, our strategy is to advance American influence in the world, but this begins with building up our wealth and power at home.

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

America will lead again. 

We do not seek to impose our way of life on anyone, but we will champion the values without apology. We want strong alliances and partnerships based on cooperation and reciprocity. We will make new partnerships with those who share our goals, and make common interests into a common cause. We will not allow inflexible ideology to become an obsolete and obstacle to peace.

We will pursue the vision we have carried around the world over this past year — a vision of strong, sovereign, and independent nations that respect their citizens and respect their neighbors; nations that thrive in commerce and cooperation, rooted in their histories and branching out toward their destinies.

That is the future we wish for this world, and that is the future we seek in America. (Applause.)

With this strategy, we are calling for a great reawakening of America, a resurgence of confidence, and a rebirth of patriotism, prosperity, and pride.

With this strategy, we are calling for a great reawakening of America, a resurgence of confidence, and a rebirth of patriotism, prosperity, and pride.

And we are returning to the wisdom of our founders. In America, the people govern, the people rule, and the people are sovereign. What we have built here in America is precious and unique. In all of history, never before has freedom reigned, the rule of law prevailed, and the people thrived as we have here for nearly 250 years.

We must love and defend it. We must guard it with vigilance and spirit, and, if necessary, like so many before us, with our very lives. And we declare that our will is renewed, our future is regained, and our dreams are restored.

Every American has a role to play in this grand national effort. And today, I invite every citizen to take their part in our vital mission. Together, our task is to strengthen our families, to build up our communities, to serve our citizens, and to celebrate American greatness as a shining example to the world.

As long as we are proud — and very proud — of who we are, how we got here, and what we are fighting for to preserve, we will not fail.

If we do all of this, if we rediscover our resolve and commit ourselves to compete and win again, then together we will leave our children and our grandchildren a nation that is stronger, better, freer, prouder, and, yes, an America that is greater than ever before.

God Bless You. Thank you very much. Thank you. (Applause.)”

900 - America First: The Trump Doctrine of National Security

 
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